A number of lessons can be learnt from this analysis: (1) the significance of civil society’s role into the political system should not be underestimated; (2) the (international) system is changing towards forms of interdependence and transnational interactions that are ever more intense and difficult to tame and control; and (3) significant opportunities and risks are intermingled within the relations between public institutions and civil society.


1. In 2009, there were 1316 EU-level interest representatives on the EC register, with approximately 60% stemming from business and trade associations and the rest representing diffuse or public interests.


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