Observed Climate Variability and Change over the Indian Region

RainfallTemperatureExtreme Rainfall and RainstormsHeat and Cold WavesMeteorological DroughtsTropical Cyclones and Monsoon DepressionsTotal Cloud CoverMoisture ContentRadiative FluxesSea Surface Temperature, Ocean CirculationSea LevelGlaciers and Snow CoverAtmospheric AerosolOzone and Related Trace GasesPaleoclimatic Records of Past MonsoonsRegional Climate Change ScenariosObserved Variability and Long-Term Trends of Rainfall Over IndiaIntroductionBrief Review of the Past WorkData Used and MethodologyObserved Changes in Rainfall PatternTrend and Variability in All India RainfallTrends and Variability on Regional ScaleTrends in North-east Monsoon RainfallChange Point or Climate Jump in the South-west Monsoon Rainfall Over IndiaConclusionsReferencesVariability and Long-Term Changes in Surface Air Temperatures Over the Indian SubcontinentIntroductionReview of Past Work DoneData and MethodologyResults and DiscussionsAnnual Trend of All India TemperaturesSeasonal TemperaturesSpatial Patterns of Temperature TrendsAnnual TemperaturesSpatial Trends in the Seasonal TemperaturesTrend in Upper-Air TemperaturesSummaryReferencesVariability and Trends of Extreme Rainfall and RainstormsIntroductionData and MethodologyResult and AnalysisChanges in the Frequency of Rainfall Events of Different Intensities in StatesTrends of Extreme Rainfall Events Based on Gridded DataRainstormsConclusionsReferencesHeat and Cold Waves Over IndiaIntroductionDefinition of HW and CWData and MethodologyHeat Wave (HW)/Severe Heat Wave (SHW)Climatology and Decadal VariationFrequency of the HW/SHW DaysPersistency of HW/SHW ConditionsSpatial Coverage of the HW/SHWHW/SHW Days and ENSOTrends in the Seasonal HW DaysTrends in the Total HW/SHW Days Over Core HW Zone (CHZ)CW/SCWClimatology and Decadal VariationFrequency of the CW/SCW DaysPersistency of CW/SCW EventsENSO and CW DaysTrends in the Station-Wise Seasonal CW/SCW DaysTrends in the Total CW/SCW Days Over CCZConclusionsReferencesVariability of Meteorological Droughts Over IndiaIntroductionClimatology of District-Wide Drought Frequency During Southwest Monsoon SeasonAll-India (Country-Wide) DroughtsComposite Spatial SPI Patterns Associated with the All-India DroughtRelationship of Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) Over the Tropical Pacific and the Indian Oceans with All-India DroughtsConclusionsReferencesInter-annual Variation and Trends in Tropical Cyclones and Monsoon Depressions Over the North Indian OceanIntroductionData and MethodologyResults and DiscussionsLinear Trends in CDs, TCs and Severe TCs FrequenciesTrends During Satellite Era (1961-2010)Trends in Intensification of CDs and TCsTrends in Associated Atmospheric ParametersImpact of CDs Trends on Seasonal RainfallRole of ENSO on CDs/TCs FrequencyConclusionReferencesVariability and Changes in Cloud Cover Over India During 1951-2010IntroductionReview of Past StudiesData and MethodologyMethod of ObservationsData UsedEstimation of Long-Term TrendsResults and DiscussionTemporal Variations in TCCAnnual and Seasonal Mean TCC VariationSpatial Patterns of Annual and Seasonal TCC TrendsAnnualWinterSummerMonsoonPostMonsoonRelationship Between TCC and Associated Climatic Variables DTR and NRDCorrelation Between TCC and DTRCorrelation Between TCC and NRDConclusionsReferencesVariability and Trends of Atmospheric Moisture over the Indian RegionIntroductionData and MethodologyResults and DiscussionAll India TrendsSpecific HumidityRelative HumidityRegional TrendsSpecific HumidityRelative HumiditySoil Moisture TrendsMoisture Content in the AtmosphereConclusionsReferencesTrends in Radiative Fluxes Over the Indian RegionIntroductionSolar Radiation MeasurementsReview of Earlier Studies in IndiaAnnual and Seasonal Variability of Radiative FluxLong-Term Variability of Radiative FluxRadiative Flux Variability in the Recent DecadeRadiative Flux from Other Data SourcesImplications for Climate ChangeSummaryReferencesVariability and Trends of Sea Surface Temperature and Circulation in the Indian OceanObservations in the Indian OceanSea Surface Temperature (SST) Variability in the Indian OceanResponse of Indian Ocean to El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)Indian Ocean WarmingLocal and Remote Impacts of Indian Ocean WarmingIndian Ocean Surface CirculationSeasonal Mean Circulation in the Indian OceanIntraseasonal Variability in the Indian Ocean CirculationInterannual Variability in the Indian Ocean CirculationTrends in Indian Ocean CirculationReferencesSea Level Variability and Trends in the North Indian OceanIntroductionSea Level ObservationsTide GaugesSatellite AltimetryLong-Term Trend in Indian Ocean Sea LevelInter-annual to Decadal Variability of Sea Level in the Indian OceanCMIP Projections on Future Sea Level RiseReferencesVariability of Glaciers and Snow CoverIntroductionGlacier Extent and Volume of Glacier-Stored Water in the Indian HimalayaGlacial ExtentGlacial VolumeRetreat and Area LossMass BalanceSnow CoverWay ForwardSpatial Distribution of Glacial Depth and VolumeIdentification and Mapping of Potential Moraine-Dammed LakesModelling Glacier Dynamics to Understand Future Changes in Glacial Extent Due to Changes in ClimateModelling Future Changes in Contribution of Snow and Glacier Melt in Stream Run-offReferencesVariability of Atmospheric Aerosols Over IndiaIntroductionVariability in Aerosol PropertiesTrends in Aerosol Optical DepthBlack Carbon Aerosols: Spatial and Temporal VariabilityEvolution of Size DistributionsVertical DistributionAerosol Direct Radiative Forcing: Past and PresentConclusionsReferencesVariability of Ozone and Related Trace Gases Over IndiaIntroductionAtmospheric Total OzoneVertical Distribution of OzoneEffects of Dynamics on Ozone in the TroposphereSurface Ozone and Its PrecursorsSurface Observations at High-Altitude SitesHydrocarbonsSulfur GasesTrace Gases over the Marine RegionsLong-Term Trends in Surface OzoneLong-Term Trends in NOxNOx Emission InventoriesModeling Using Global and Regional ModelsHeterogeneous ChemistryEffects on Crops and Human HealthConcluding Remarks and Future DirectionReferencesProxy Climatic Records of Past MonsoonsIntroductionHolocene Monsoon VariabilityMarine Records of Holocene MonsoonHistorical Climate RecordsTerrestrial RecordsDendroclimatic ReconstructionNew Tree-Ring Chronologies: Western HimalayaStudies Based on Tropical TeakSouthern Indian Tree-Ring Chronologies from Kerala that Are Drought SensitiveSpeleothem Records from IndiaConclusionsReferencesRegional Climate Change ScenariosIntroductionModels and ExperimentsCORDEX South Asia ModelsResults and DiscussionSimulated Baseline Climate (1976-2005)Simulated Climate Change (2031-2060)SummaryReferences
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