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Constitutional Sunsets and Experimental Legislation: A Comparative Perspective

AcknowledgementsI Introducing sunset clauses and experimental legislationLawmaking in a time of changeINTRODUCTIONThe Ignorance SocietyAn Experiment Named LawmakingSetting the Sun on LegislationSTRANGE SILENCES AND GUIDING VOICESAPPROACH AND METHODApproach(a) United States(b) Germany(c) The NetherlandsMethodROADMAP TO CONSTITUTIONAL SUNSETS AND EXPERIMENTAL REGULATIONSThe past and present of sunset clauses and experimental legislationINTRODUCTIONHISTORICAL BACKGROUNDSunset ClausesExperimental LegislationDEFINITION AND CHARACTERISTICSSunset Clauses(a) Different types of sunset clauses(b) True sunset clauses and ‘the others’Experimental Legislation(a) Different shades of experimental legislation(b) Other forms of legislative experimentation(c) Levels of enactment in federal statesFUNCTIONS OF SUNSET CLAUSES AND EXPERIMENTAL LEGISLATIONTo Tackle Uncertainty, Lack of Information and Prognosis ProblemsTo Enhance the Quality of Legislation(a) Instruments to rationalize the legislative process(b) To reduce regulatory pressure(c) Gathering facts and considering evidence-based information(d) Legislative process converted into a learning pathTo Improve the Effectiveness of Public AdministrationTo Respond to Temporary ProblemsTo Act as ‘Consensus-Finders’To Facilitate the Regulation of InnovationVALUE OF SUNSET CLAUSES AND EXPERIMENTAL LEGISLATIONNature of the Problem or SectorLegislative GoalsForbidden Ground for Temporary Legislation?CONCLUSIONSeparation of powers, delegation and a legality frameworkA DIFFERENTIATED APPROACHSUNSET CLAUSES AND SEPARATION OF POWERSSEPARATION OF POWERS AND EXPERIMENTAL LEGISLATIONA LEGALITY FRAMEWORK FOR EXPERIMENTAL LEGISLATIONPrinciple of LegalityLegality FrameworkLEGALITY FRAMEWORK AND THEORIES OF DELEGATIONTheory of Essentiality (Wesentlichkeitstheorie)Non-delegation Theory in the United StatesDelegation in the NetherlandsDelegation Doctrines: Preliminary ConclusionELEMENTS OF THE LEGALITY FRAMEWORK: CLARIFICATIONElements of the Statutory Basis: An ExampleGoals of the ExperimentUnambiguous Legislative Intent‘Direction’ and ‘Extent’ of the ExperimentEvaluation Criteria and TransparencyFollow-up DecisionCONCLUSIONII Legal frameworkThe principle of legal certaintyMEANING AND DIMENSIONS OF LEGAL CERTAINTYDifferent Forms and Dimensions of ‘Legal Certainty’Legal Certainty and the Rechtsstaat or the Rule of LawLEGAL CERTAINTY AND SUNSET CLAUSESA ‘Foe’ to Legal CertaintyA ‘Friend’to Legal Certainty(a) Sunset clauses as a source of certainty(b) Sunset clauses can tackle uncertaintyLEGAL CERTAINTY AND EXPERIMENTAL LEGISLATIONExperimental Legislation: A ‘Foe’ to Legal CertaintyExperimental Legislation: A ‘Friend’ to Legal CertaintyPRINCIPLE OF LEGAL CERTAINTY: PRELIMINARY CONCLUSIONThe principle of equal treatmentINTRODUCTIONMEANING(S) OF THE PRINCIPLE OF EQUAL TREATMENTPRINCIPLE OF EQUAL TREATMENT AND SUNSET CLAUSESEXPERIMENTAL LEGISLATION AND THE PRINCIPLE OF EQUAL TREATMENTExperimental Legislation and Objective DifferentiationVoluntary Participation in the ExperimentEXPERIMENTAL LEGISLATION AND THE PRINCIPLE OF EQUAL TREATMENT: CONCLUDING REMARKSThe principle of proportionalityTHE PROPORTIONALITY INQUIRYGENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITYPROPORTIONALITY TEST, SUNSET CLAUSES AND EXPERIMENTAL LEGISLATIONIII Beyond the lawSunset clauses and experimental legislation beyond the lawINTRODUCTIONINTELLECTUAL AND IDEOLOGICAL RELUCTANCEIntellectual Reluctance(a) Sunset clauses and the reluctance towards ‘termination’(b) Experimental legislation and scepticism towards the experimental methodRole of IdeologyLACK OF INFORMATION OR EXPERTISEPOLITICAL RATIONALITYPolitical PersistenceReputational and Electoral ConcernsCapture by Special Interest Groups and PoliticiansENACTMENT OR IMPLEMENTATION PATHOLOGIESProblems at the Design or Enactment Level(a) Deficient goals and evaluation criteria(b) Duration of sunset clauses and experimental legislationIntricacies at the Implementation Level(a) Disregard for participation of stakeholders(b) Evaluation and validity of experiment(c) Inadequate evaluation or disregard for the results of evaluation reportsCOSTS AND BURDENSPRELIMINARY CONCLUSIONConclusionTHOUGHTS ON A LEGISLATIVE MIDWAY BETWEEN PAST AND FUTUREFlexibility in LawmakingLearning by DoingCONCLUSIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR USEINSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF SUNSET CLAUSES AND EXPERIMENTAL LEGISLATIONPermanent Legislation: General GuidelinesTemporary Rules(a) Sunset clauses(b) Experimental legislationLimits to the Enactment of Sunset Clauses and Experimental LegislationBibliography
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