Musical Instruments in the 21st Century: Identities, Configurations, Practices

I Think Know ReflectInstrumentality. On the Construction of Instrumental IdentityIntroductionMusical Instruments versus Other ThingsMusical Instruments and Musical Instrument ConceptsPrevious Approaches to InstrumentalityCriteria of Instrumentality: A Preliminary InventorySound ProductionIntention/PurposeLearnability/VirtuosityPlayability/Control/Immediacy/Agency/InteractionExpressivity/Effort/Corporeality“Immaterial Features”/Cultural EmbeddednessAudience Perception/LivenessConclusionReferencesFrom Musical Instruments as Ontological Entities to Instrumental Quality: A Linguistic Exploration of Musical Instrumentality in the Digital EraIntroductionA Linguistic and Cognitive Perspective on Musical InstrumentalityA Multidisciplinary Framework...for a Heterogeneous CorpusFrom Lexicographic and Academic Instrument Definitions...Lexicographic Definitions(Ethno-) Musicology Definitionsto the Emergence of a Terminology in a Computer Music Community of PracticesStrategies for Naming and Categorising Digital Devices in Users ’ InterviewsDefining InstrumentalityNaming Strategies in Computer Music Literature Titles: A Stabilisation Under ConstructionConcluding Remarks and PerspectivesReferencesFrom Idiophone to Touchpad. The Technological Development to the Virtual Musical InstrumentIntroductionThe Development of Musical Instruments in Ten Stages from Prehistory to the Digital AgeNew Forms of Composing and Playing in a Digital World of MusicReferencesMusical Instruments as AssemblageIntroduction: From Musical Instrument to AssemblageViolins and Fiddles: Identical Instruments, Diverse AssemblagesThe Electric Guitar: Technological Assemblage as ‘Integrated Circuit’The Turntable: An Assemblage en Route to a Musical InstrumentConclusion: Instrument Design and AssemblageReferencesInstrumentality as Distributed, Interpersonal, and Self-Agential: Aesthetic Implications of an Instrumental Assemblage and Its Fortuitous VoiceIntroductionExploring the Instrumentality of an Installatory AssemblageDistribution, Natural Environment, Interpersonal Accomplishment: Three Extensions to Alperson’s Concept of InstrumentalityReferencesInteractivity of Digital Musical Instruments: Implications of Classifying Musical Instruments on Basic Music ResearchThe Hornbostel-Sachs System and Musical Instrument ClassificationScientific Concept Formation: Classification and TaxonomyClassification and Taxonomy I: The Logical ConceptClassification and Taxonomy II: The Problem of Empirical AdequacyThe ‘Computer-as-a-Musical Instrument’, Interactivity and Automata: A Necessity of a New Approach to Musical Instrument Classification?Interactivity: Towards a New Approach to Musical Instrument ClassificationInteractivity I: Interactive Versus Algorithmic ComputationInteractivity II: Interactive Music SystemsInteractivity III: Interaction and Feedback in Research on Interactive Musical InstrumentsInteractivity IV: Interactive Musical InstrumentsInteractivity V: Embodiment, Situatedness, and AgencyInteractivity VI: Dynamic Systems and Autonomous AgentsConcluding RemarksReferencesII Design Make CreateMovement Meets Material—An Improvisational Approach to DesignIntroductionImprovisation in Performance and DesignThe Role of the EnvironmentMethodological SetupAnalysis of the Improvised Design ApproachSession #1: Material ExplorationAnalysis of Session #1: Instrument Mock-UpsBalloonsPolystyrene FoamTubesResulting Mock-UpsSession #2: Exploring Instrument Mock-UpsAnalysis of Session #2: Instrument PrototypesBalloonsTubesFurther Technical Refinements: Improvisational PrototypesDiscussionImprovisationMateriality and CorporealityLimitations and OutlookReferencesInstrumentality, Time and PerseveranceIntroductionHeritagesThree Phases of DevelopmentThe Story of the HandsThe Experimental PhaseThe Standardisation PhaseThe Customisation PhaseConclusions and NotesReferencesMachine Learning as Meta-Instrument Human-Machine Partnerships Shaping Expressive Instrumental CreationIntroductionNew InstrumentsMappings and Mapping Creation ToolsHuman-Computer Interactions with. Digital Instruments: Control Versus PartnershipMachine Learning and the WekinatorInteractive Machine Learning as Design ToolMachine Learning as Design ToolSpeeding Up Implementation of Complex MappingsSupporting Prototyping and ExplorationSupporting Surprise and DiscoverySupporting Embodied Design PracticeSupporting AccessibilityDiscussion: Wekinator as Meta-InstrumentReferencesInterfacing Sound: Visual Representation of Sound in Musical Software InstrumentsIntroductionDigital Music Technologies—Designing with MetaphorsInterfacing Sound with Screen Interfacesixi SoftwareixiQuarksixi LangThe ThrenoscopeConclusionReferencesDigital Media and Electronic Music in the Classroom—The Loop EnsembleIntroductionDigital Media in German Music Education—Tradition, Stagnation and ProgressThe Loop EnsembleEvaluationReferencesThe Birl: Adventures in the Development of an Electronic Wind InstrumentIntroductionOrigins of the Birl (2008)The First Birl (2009-2010)The Second Birl (2011)The Third Birl (2012-2015)The Fourth Birl (2015-Present)The Birl of the Future! (Present-Beyond)Reflections on the ProcessReferencesCase Study: The Endangered GuitarThe Instrument as ProcessBackgroundAdding Max/MSPCore: Sample ManipulationAudio InputsModularityMultichannel SoundEuclidean RhythmsSound Analysis as Control SourceExternal Controller InputUnpredictabilityOutlookListening ExampleReferencesIII Compose Play PerformInterplay Between Composition, Instrument Design and PerformanceIntroductionBecoming‘Where Is the Piece?’Composition, Instrument and PerformanceComposition“New” Instruments and MappingPerformers and Their InstrumentAlgorithms, Software and CodingInteractive Music Systems or Live AlgorithmsMusic Software and ToolsLivecodingConclusionReferencesInstrumentality in Sonic Wild{er}nessA First Day in the FieldEvolution of Outdoor Music InterventionDeconstructing WildernessPreparations and PracticalitiesSonic EcologyImmersing and DissolvingActive and Passive ListeningIntervention StructureDigital Music, Computers Versus NatureVoice—The Embodied InstrumentLive CodingEnsemble PlayingSolitudeUnfolding Instrument DesignInstruments to Complement Sonic NichesInterfaces for PlayingDocumentationImplicationsReferencesInstrumental Modality. On Wanting to Play SomethingTracing the Event“Mapping Is Where It’s At!”What Is the Instrument? How Do We Play It? and What Does It Mean?From Piece to ToolPreparing the Real Time MomentInstruments for Spatial Sound Control in Real Time Music Performances. A ReviewIntroductionDefining the Contexts: Space and Spatialisation of SoundSound Spatialisation as Performance PracticeSound Spatialisation Controllers in Context of Digital Musical InstrumentsA Systematic Inventory of Spatial Sound Controllers for Real Time PerformanceStudy Design and MethodologyResearch Focus, Limitations and ResourcesA Classification of Real Time Spatialisation ControllersAugmented ControllersTouch ControllersExtended Range ControllersImmersive/Wearable ControllersMixed Controller ApproachesDiscussionReferencesLucille Meets GuitarBot: Instrumentality, Agency, and Technology in Musical PerformanceIntroductionLucilleGuitarBotLucille Meets GuitarBotReferencesNo Flute Is an Island, Entire of Itself. Transgressing Performers, Instruments and Instrumentality in Contemporary MusicWhat Does the Instrument Offer Us?Playing, Participating, InfluencingTransforming Sound and SkillThe Dilemma of InstrumentalityAddressing Instrument and Performer as OneReintroducing the ObjectThe Role of TransgressionRethinking InstrumentalityApproaching New InstrumentsReferencesLiveCodeNet Ensamble: A Network for Improvising Music with CodeIntroductionLiveCodeNet Ensamble and its ContextThe Practice of LiveCodeNet EnsambleThe InstrumentConclusionsReferencesThree Flavors of Post-Instrumentalities The Musical Practices of, and a Many-Festo by Trio BrachialeIntroductionConceptual Contexts for Contemporary InstrumentalityMusic Making in Cybernetic TermsLearning Music in Cybernetic TermsExpanding Possibility Spaces in Art and TechnologyTechnological Revolutions and Possibility SpacesUndecidable Questions, Responsibility, and CollaborationLimitations and Their PossibilitiesSecond Order Virtuosity—A DefinitionPraxis—Advanced Instrumentalities in Electronic MusicSources of Inspiration in Performance and DesignJoker Nies: Circuit Bending and PerformanceRob Hordijk: Autopoietic Synthesis and ChaosPeter Blasser: The Poetics of SynthesynthesisTrio Brachiale ConceptsRandom Orbits—A hitchhiker’s Guide to Navigation in Possibility Space (Hoelzl)MetaControl—Lose Control, Gain Influence (de Campo)The Finger and its Possibility Space (Hildebrand Marques Lopes)Conclusions and a Future AgendaReferencesIV Listen Perceive FeelMapping, Causality and the Perception of Instrumentality: Theoretical and Empirical Approaches to the Audience’s Experience of Digital Musical InstrumentsIntroductionCausality and LivenessCausality and Audience Understanding of DMIsConclusion: From User Experience to Audience ExperienceReferencesWestern Orchestral Instruments in the Foreground: What Features Make an Instrument More Attractive for a Solo Role in Concertos?IntroductionSolo Use of Western Orchestral InstrumentsPossible Factors for the Choice of Solo InstrumentsPerceived Loudness CapacityPitch. HeightTimbre SaliencePerformer Pool SizeAimsMethodConcerto DataPredictor VariablesPerceived Loudness CapacityPitch HeightTimbre SaliencePerformer Pool SizeResultsDiscussionReferencesInstruments Unheard of: On the Role of Familiarity and Sound Source Categories in Timbre PerceptionIntroductionThe Concept of TimbreBackground on Timbre PerceptionTimbre DissimilarityInstrument IdentificationSound Source Categories in Timbre PerceptionStimuli and Sound TransformationInstrument IdentificationModeling Dissimilarity RatingsDiscussionReferencesWhat If Your Instrument Is Invisible?MotivationGuidelinesMy PracticeInvisibility, Performance Practice and Gender TroubleMaking the Invisible More Understood: Using My BodySound DecisionsEnvelope/DynamicsRhythmDelays and FilteringDelay Time/Length/InteractionFilter StrategiesTemporal ShiftSweepPitch-Shifting and Other ManipulationsReversed Sounds/Speed ChangesIndependence Day—Feedback as SolutionLocation, Location, LocationI Came to Ask MyselfCreating the Invisible Instrument So It Could Be Understood by MusiciansInstrument ControlPresets/Starting PointsGiving up Control Over Time = Automated ProcessesVoice Activated ControlsOutroLearning from the MastersReferences
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