The Netherlands

Overall research spending in the Netherlands is, with 1.97 % of its GDP in 2014, slightly higher than in England. Spending has gone down from 2004 to 2008, but steadily increased since.[1] The Netherlands’ research system is a consociational system (i.e. a system that relies on consultation of a variety of different stakeholders) and as such characterised by involvement of a wide variety of actors in research policy setting processes. On the one hand, this allows using synergies. On the other hand, it can result in slow decision making processes.[2] Despite the fact that research in the Netherlands has done well when it comes to performance indicators such as the number of publications and citations and general attractiveness of the system, a number of challenges including a perceived need to establish elite institutions, strengthen private sector research, set research priorities with practical relevance, coordinate policies, increase innovation and utilise European funding streams have been identified.[3] The Dutch research system has, therefore, recently undergone some changes towards creating excellence, impact agendas, commercialisation and strengthening of institutional autonomy combined with external steering.[4]

  • [1] EUROSTAT (n 17).
  • [2] Braun 2006, p. 5 seq; Jongbloed 2010; van der Meulen 2010, p. 516 seq, 526; Leisyte 2011,pp. 441, 446.
  • [3] Braun 2006, p. 5; Jongbloed 2010, pp. 293, 312 seq, 318 seq; van der Meulen 2010, pp. 515,518, 525; Mostert 2012, p. 1 seq; European Commission 2015, p. 464 seq, 480; Euraxess (2016)Research Landscape. Accessed5 August 2016.
  • [4] Leisyte et al. 2008, p. 377; Jongbloed 2010, p. 318 seq; Mostert 2012, p. 4 seq. EuropeanCommission 2015.
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