The Governmental Structure

Research policy is mainly coordinated by the Ministry for Education, Culture and Sciences (Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap, OCW) and the Ministry of Economic Affairs (Ministerie van Economische Zaken, EZ). The former is focussed on basic research and is responsible for the research system in general and for funding universities and various other research organisations. The EZ’s involvement, which has increased over recent years, lies mainly in the areas of technology, innovation and agricultural research where it follows a more ‘hands-on’ approach. Other ministries might be involved as concerns their remit.[1] Advice on research policies is provided by a number of advisory bodies, particularly by the Advisory Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (Adviesraad voor wetenschap, technologie en innovatie) and the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, KNAW).[2]

Several intermediate organisations, most significantly the Netherlands Research Council (Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek, NWO), the Netherlands Enterprise Agency (Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland, RVO) and the Technology Foundation (Stichting voor de Technische Wetenschappen, STW), are responsible for implementing government policy and for acting as funding bodies for competitive public funding programmes.[3] The NWO focuses on basic research in all fields of enquiry in universities, their own institutes and other organisations. It funds researchers, research infrastructure and whole research institutes and receives its budget mainly from the OCW.[4] RVO falls under EZ and is responsible for supporting the private sector and research institutes in the area of technological innovation, sustainable development and international aspects.[5] The STW is mainly funding applied research and knowledge transfer in technical sciences. It receives its budget largely from the NWO, EZ and OCW.[6] In addition to intermediate organisations, there are a few important research facilitating organisations providing access to scientific materials such as the Royal Library (Koninklijke Bibliotheek).[7]

  • [1] Braun 2006, pp. 1, 5 seq; Jongbloed 2010, p. 287 seq; van der Meulen 2010, p. 516 seq, 523seq; Leisyte 2011, p. 439; Mostert 2012, p. 2 seq, 8 seq, 11, Euraxess (n 101), Rathenau Instituut(n 108) section ‘Policy and structure—Governance of Science’.
  • [2] Braun 2006, p. 2 seq; Jongbloed 2010, p. 290; van der Meulen 2010, p. 516; Mostert 2012,p. 3 seq, 9, Rathenau Instituut (n 108) section ‘Policy and structure—Governance of Science’.
  • [3] Jongbloed 2010, p. 289; van der Meulen 2010, p. 524 seq, 527; Mostert 2012, p. 2 seq, 10,Euraxess (n 101).
  • [4] Arnold et al. 2006, p. 30; Braun 2006, p. 3; De Weert and Boezerooy 2007, p. 45; Jongbloed2010, p. 288; Leisyte 2011, p. 440; Mostert 2012, pp. 3, 10, 18 seq, Euraxess (n 101), Matthijset al. 2016, pp. 49, 64, Rathenau Instituut (n 108) section ‘Investments—Government funding ofR&D’.
  • [5] Mostert 2012, pp. 3, 10, Euraxess (n 101), Matthijs et al. 2016, p. 43.
  • [6] Braun 2006, p. 3; Mostert 2012, pp. 4, 10, Euraxess (n 101).
  • [7] Directie Kennis 2012, p. 114.
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