Germany is the EU Member State with the fifth highest spending on R&D. In 2014 Germany spent 2.87 % of its GDP on R&D having increased spending more or less steadily over the previous ten years. Germany thus nearly met the 3 % goal of the Europe 2020 Strategy which has so far only been achieved by Finland, Sweden and Denmark.[1] Whilst the high spending is a strength of the German research system, weaknesses have been identified in regard to the lack of utilisation of synergies between actors, transparency, exploitation and efficiency of funding utilisation. Additionally, Germany decided to increase research funding in response to the economic crisis. Measures to overhaul the system in order to address its weaknesses and to distribute additional funding efficiently have thus been initiated in recent years and the system has, accordingly, been in a stage of reformation which also includes steps towards competition and commodification.[2]

  • [1] EUROSTAT (n 17). Austria is, with 2.99 % in 2012, still slightly below the target.
  • [2] Enders 2007, p. 19 seq, 23 seq, 26 seq; Wissenschaftsrat 2007, p. 7 seq; Edler and Kuhlmann2008, p. 265 seq, 268 seq; Hinze 2010, p. 171 seq; Schubert and Schmoch 2010, p. 244; Schreiterer2015; BMBF 2016, p. 10 seq.
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