Alternative Tourism in Turkey: Role, Potential Development and Sustainability

I Setting the Context Globalization, Mass Tourism, and Sustainable DevelopmentIntroductionMass TourismTourism and GlobalizationTechnologyEconomic factors.Political factors.Cultural factors.Environmental factors.Sustainable Development, Sustainability and Sustainable TourismIntroducing the Chapters in Part IReferencesHistory of Tourism Development in TurkeyIntroductionEarlier Attempts of Tourism DevelopmentTourism Development During the Planned EraGovernance, Mass Tourism, and SustainabilityConclusionReferencesTourism and Sustainability in Turkey: Negative Impact of Mass Tourism DevelopmentIntroductionEnvironmental ProblemsWater ConsumptionWater PollutionImpact on Coastal EcosystemsOverconsumption of Other ResourcesAir, Ground, and Noise PollutionSocial ProblemsCultural Impact of Mass Tourism DevelopmentEconomic Benefits Are Fewer Than ClaimedDiscussion and ConclusionsReferencesII Introducing Alternative Tourism Alternative Tourism: Definition and CharacteristicsIntroductionPossible Solutions to Solve the Problems Created by Mass TourismAlternative TourismAlternative Tourism in TurkeyIntroducing the Case StudiesReferencesNature-Based Tourism in Turkey: The Yayla in Turkey’s Eastern Black Sea RegionIntroductionGlobal and Turkish Nature-Based TourismSocio-economic Features of the Black Sea RegionCase Study I: Ayder YaylaCase Study II: The Kackar YaylaConclusion and SuggestionsReferencesGeotourism in TurkeyIntroductionIntroducing TurkeyGeotourism Development in Turkey and Its IssuesTurkey’s Geotourism ResourcesMountain AreasVolcanic FeaturesWater FeaturesOther FeaturesNational ParksConclusionsReferencesBetween Traditional and Modern: Thermal Tourism in TurkeyIntroductionConceptual FrameworkThermal Tourism in the WorldThermal Tourism in TurkeyThe Past and Present of Thermal Tourism in TurkeyThe Supply and Demand for Thermal Tourism in TurkeyThe Future of Thermal Tourism in TurkeyConclusionReferencesGreat Potential of the Colourful Cultural Heritage of Turkey: Ethnic TourismIntroductionHistorical Background to the Connections of Ethnic TourismMinorities and Chief Ethnic and Subcultural Groups in the Ethnic Tourism of Turkey TodayMain Attractions of Ethnic TourismMigration-Related Ethnic Origin Visits and Meetings in TurkeyVisits by the Exchanged RumsVisits by JewsVisits by ArmeniansVisits by White RussiansVisits by PomaksVisits to RelativesFestivals and Events as Destinations for Ethnic TourismEvents of RomaniesKakava FestivalsAhirkapi Hidrellez FestivalCamel Wrestling Festivals of YuruksPlaces in Which Ethnic and Cultural Characteristics Provide Attractiveness in TourismMacahel (Artvin)The Taurus Mountains and the Kaz MountainsConclusionReferencesFestivals as a Short-Duration Tourism Attraction in TurkeyA Review of Events and FestivalsA Contemporary Approach to FestivalsAn Overlook to Festivals in TurkeyConclusionReferencesReligious Tourism in TurkeyIntroductionLiteraturePilgrimage and Religious TourismMotivations of Religious TouristsReligious Tourism MarketReligious Tourism Potential in TurkeySacred Places for ChristianitySacred Places for IslamSacred Places for JudaismConclusion and RecommendationsReferencesDark Tourism and Its Potential in TurkeyIntroductionDark Tourism DefinitionsThe Scope and Perspectives of Dark TourismTypes of Dark TourismVisitor Motivations Driving Dark TourismDark Tourism Potential of TurkeySinop Prison Museum, SinopGallipoli: Cemeteries, QanakkaleThe August 17, 1999 Earthquake and Culture Museum, AdapazariDolmabahge Palace, IstanbulAnitkabir Atattirk Mausoleum and Museum, AnkaraUlucanlar Prison Museum, AnkaraDumlupinar Martyrdom, KtitahyaState Cemetery Museum, AnkaraSakarya Martyrs Victory Monument and Museum, SakaryaConclusionReferencesMedical TourismMedical Tourism: What Is and What Is Not?General Overview on Medical Tourism in the WorldWhat Is the Current State of Development in Turkey?What Is the Potential for Further Development in the Future?ChallengesConclusionReferencesShopping and Tourism in Turkey: The Perfect CombinationIntroductionTourism and ShoppingShopping Tourism in TurkeyCross-Border Shopping Tourism in TurkeyTraditional Shopping CentersModern Shopping CentersHigh Street ShoppingMall TourismShopping FestivalsTourists from the Middle East and ShoppingConclusionReferencesLocal Gastronomy: A Tasty Tourist Attraction in TurkeyIntroductionDefinition of TermsGrowth of Gastronomic TourismImportance of Gastronomic TourismRegional Cuisines in TurkeyMarmara RegionAegean RegionMediterranean RegionSoutheastern RegionEastern AnatoliaBlack Sea RegionCentral Anatolia RegionGastronomic Tourism in TurkeyWine Tourism in TurkeyConclusionReferencesGeography of Turkish Soap Operas: Tourism, Soft Power, and Alternative NarrativesIntroductionTurkish Soap Operas AbroadSocial Challenges and Alternative NarrativesConclusionReferencesThe Role and Potential of Halal Tourism in TurkeyIntroduction: Clarifying the Basic ConceptsIslam and TourismHalal (Islam-Compliant) TourismDress CodePrivacy and FamilyHalal Food ServiceOther Requirements of Islam-Compliant TourismThe Situation of Halal Tourism in TurkeyConclusionReferencesIII Assessing Alternative TourismPost-Fordism, Alternative Tourism and SustainabilityAlternative Tourism and Post-FordismAlternative Tourism and Sustainable DevelopmentIntroducing the ChaptersReferencesBeyond Fordism and Flexible Specialization in Antalya’s Mass-Tourism EconomyIntroductionFrom Fordism to Flexible Specialization?Antalya’s Booming Non-Fordist Mass-TourismVariety of Tourism Value-Chains from the Netherlands to AntalyaAntalya’s Two Micro-Models of Tourism CapitalismVery Asymmetric Capital-Labour RelationsAntalya’s Mass-Tourism Growth has Triggered Economic DiversificationInnovations in Antalya’s Hotels and RestaurantsConclusionReferencesAn Alternative View of Ecotourism with a Specific Reference to TurkeyIntroductionGeneral Background on the Nature of EcotourismEcotourism in TurkeyEcotourism as BusinessTourism AccommodationsTransportationTravel Agencies and Tour OperatorsLocal Destinations: Mystified, Packaged, and SoldEcotourism for Enjoyment and Profit from Local AreasConservation and Biodiversity via EcotourismEcotourists as Customers and UsersState as Regulator and Promoter of EcotourismEnvironmental Policy of Tourism and Allied Sectors: Words and DeedsAcademic Interest in and Studies on EcotourismConclusionReferencesThe Challenges on Sustainability of Alternative Forms of TourismIntroductionSustainability Issues and Expectations from Alternative TourismThe Case of Bursa: Alternative Tourism Potentials and ChallengesA Tourism Vision of Bursa and the Potentials of Alternative TourismChallenges on Sustainability and Alternative Tourism as a Combination of Culture, Nature, and Rural Development: The Case of CumalikizikConclusionReferencesCommunity-Based Tourism as Sustainable DevelopmentIntroductionCBT Projects as Sustainable Development in TurkeyCBT Development in GoremeCBT as ‘Alternative Tourism’Conclusion and ImplicationsReferencesPublic Policy and Sustainable Alternative TourismIntroductionWhat Is Sustainable Development and Sustainable Tourism?Sustainable Tourism Policy and PlanningPublic Policy and Sustainable Alternative Tourism in TurkeyConclusionReferences
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