Table of Contents:

Other Features

In addition to the large number of mountains and volcanic features in Turkey, there are also other outstanding features that could be viewed as major attractions for geotourists, such as canyons, valleys, travertine terraces, caves, sinkholes, fairy chimneys, and plateaus. Also worth mentioning are the North Anatolian Fault and the East Anatolian Fault (Table 6.4) (Fig 6.4).

Table 6.4 Examples of important other features related to geotourism in Turkey

Geomorphological

features

Name/region

Characteristics

Canyon Valley/Valleys

Ihlara Valley, Central Anatolia

Ihlara Valley is an important geotourism resource due to the many natural and cultural monuments that exist here. This canyon valley along the Melendiz River is 100 m deep. There are 104 churches and 16 monasteries located in the canyon (Doganer 2001)

Saklikent Canyon, Mediterranean

Saklikent Canyon is located in Mugla Province. The length of the canyon is approximately 18 km and the altitude of the canyon slopes varies between 100 and 350 m. The canyon was formed by epirogenic and cratogenic movements (§engun 2011). Due to the high level of water in the canyon, visitors can only walk a sector of the canyon during summer months

Koprnlfl Canyon, Mediterranean

Koprnlfl Canyon is 14 km long and 100 m deep. It is the longest canyon of Turkey and was declared as national park in 1973 (Doganay 2001: 196). It is possible to see karstic features here such as chimney rocks as well as a rich biodiversity (Ministry of Forest and Water 2013)

Hatila Valley, Black Sea

Hatila Valley is 25 km long and was declared a national park in 1994. The characteristics of the valley include narrow and young valleys, volcanic features, waterfalls, and a diversity of rocks (Ministry of Forest and Water 2013)

Munzur Valley, Eastern Anatolia

Munzur Valley was declared a national park in 1971. The length of valley is 46 km, and it is characterized by an

(continued)

Table 6.4 (continued)

Geomorphological

features

Name/region

Characteristics

outstanding landscape and biodiversity (Doganay 2001; Ministry of Forest and Water 2013)

Levent Valley Eastern Anatolia

Levent is an outstanding valley in Malatya and is also known as the “Little Grand Canyon.” An important feature is the horizontal bed structure as well as pillars, buttes, caves, valleys, karstic bridges, and fossils beds. Moreover, it is one of the national geopark projects of Turkey. Also, in the Levent Valley is a significant historical settlement, where some of the houses were built of stones (Akbulut 2014b)

Fairy chimneys, badlands

Anatolia

Fairy chimneys and badlands are the most important, most interesting, and rare morphological features in Cappadocia. Geoheritage such as this can be viewed in several other parts of Turkey, including in the Aras valley, Divrigi Province, and in the Kula volcanic areas. The Divrigi badlands topography is known as Demon Table by local people

Karstic features

Central Anatolia

Natural monuments are formed due to morphodynamical processes that occur in karstic places (Elmaci and Sever 2006). Sivas has excellent examples of dolines formed as a result of interaction of gypsum karst, underground water, and tectonic movement. Karstic plains (polje), karst holes, karst lakes, dolines, and caves are other examples of karstic landforms found in this area

Central Anatolia

Mucur concave is located within conglomerate and tuff from mudstone in the Upper Miocene-Pliocene in Kir^ehir Province. This geosite has an approximate diameter of 300 m and a depth of 50 m (Dogan 2001)

Mushroom-shaped

features

Anatolia

Mushroom-shaped rock formations are created by erosion, especially wind erosion and are more common in semiarid regions. Some outstanding examples of mushroom-shaped rock formations are located in Sivas and Cappadocia

Caves

Mediterranean

There are approximately 40 thousand caves in Turkey. Karain cave, located in the northwest of Antalya Province, includes a prehistoric settlement and a

(continued)

Table 6.4 (continued)

Geomorphological

features

Name/region

Characteristics

natural site (Izbirak 1996). The depth of the cave is 50 m with stalactites, dickites, and calcareous columns featuring in the cave. The skull of a Neanderthal man and animal and fruit fossils found in the cave are also interesting and effective tourism attractions and a museum was built in 1946 to exhibit these objects (Doganay 2001). Damlata§, Beldibi, Dddenba^i, Dddensuyu, and Insuyu are other caves in Antalya and its surroundings

Mediterranean

Cennet (Heaven) and Cehennem (Hell) caves are two sinkholes located in the Narlikuyu village of the Silifke district. Cennet cave with an average depth of 135 m is accessible to tourists and includes the ruins of a monastery. The other sinkhole, Cehennem, with a depth of 110 m is not accessible to tourists

Mediterranean

Eshabffl Kehf (Yediuyurlar) cave is another important geosite visited by many tourists (Doganay 2001)

Central Anatolia

Ballica cave is located in the southeast of the Tokat Province. With a length of 68 m, this fossil cave includes numerous stalactites, stalagmites, and columns

Travertine

Akgali travertine, Eastern Anatolia

Akgali travertine is located in Ba?kale (Van Province). The area of travertine is about 100 x 200 m and is extraordinarily beautiful with hundreds of old and new terraced pools. This travertine also has a 7-m-high waterfall (Elmaci and Sever 2006)

Pamukkale travertine, Aegean (western Anatolia)

Pamukkale travertine is located in the Denizli Province. This travertine has created the famous carbonate terraces declared a World Heritage site by the UNESCO in 1985 (Doganer 1997) There are also several other hot springs in this area.

Diyadin travertine, Eastern Anatolia

This travertine brook has the shape of a long strip with several hot springs and travertine deposits in the area

Sivas travertine, Central Anatolia

Sivas Province has rich travertine deposits with high concentrations of sulfur

(continued)

Table 6.4 (continued)

Geomorphological

features

Name/region

Characteristics

The North Anatolian Fault and The East Anatolian Fault

Anatolia

The latest major tectonic events in the late Cenozoic geologic evolution of Anatolia are the development of the North Anatolian Fault and the East Anatolian Fault (Angus et al. 2006). It is therefore possible to see a large variety of geological events

A general view of a butte in Levent valley. Photograph Gblpinar Akbulut

Fig. 6.4 A general view of a butte in Levent valley. Photograph Gblpinar Akbulut

National Parks

There are 40 national parks in Turkey. Most of them have been declared as national parks to protect their biodiversity, but they include an abundance of geosites as well. For example, the Aladaglar National Park includes a deep valley, several peaks, glacial rocks, caves, a spectacular canyon, and high plateaus. This particular area was declared as a national park in 1995 (Ministry of Forest and Water 2013) and the most suitable places for mountain climbing and trekking are located here. Every year, hundreds of people visit Aladag for camping and exploring the landscapes.

 
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