Ecotourism in Turkey

Turkey has richness incomparable to other countries in terms of its natural assets such as mountains, forests, highlands, 8000 km coastlines, numerous lakes and streams, about 9000 species of wild life, and fascinating geological formations such as caves and canyons. This natural wealth puts Turkey in quite an attractive position for ecotourism capital (Erdogan 2015). Pursuing the neoliberal policies of the economics of globalization, Turkey adopted ecotourism in the 1980s as an additional economic growth strategy to tourism. The 1982 Tourism Encouragement Law provided comprehensive promotion and support to tourism-related establishments. Later, a detailed incentive system was introduced and expanded. Over the years, different administrations have played an active role in tourism development by means of fiscal and monetary instruments.

Ecotourism as Business

Ecotourism refers to tightly interacting and closely interrelated professional activities of business enterprises. That is why the structure of the (eco)tourism sector is a complicated one since it includes many interrelated parts that encompass almost every industrial, economic, cultural, and political administrative structure. However, it primarily includes travel agencies, tour operators, tour guides, local, national and international transportation, and accommodation, catering, and recreation services. All these are locally, nationally, and internationally organized business entities in differing sizes, powers, and influences.

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