Aflatoxins in Indian Food Products

Abstract Hepatitis cases have been reported in India in the past due to consumption of food contaminated by some aflatoxin, a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and generally developed in food articles grown and/or stored in hot and moist environment. The main target organ of hepatic disease, caused by regular consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated foods, is liver which may suffer from jaundice and cancer in later stages. Milk is an ideal food for such patients provided it is free from aflatoxins. The Indian Food Safety and Standards Regulation, 2011 enlists aflatoxins among crop contaminants and naturally occurring toxins. In the European Union, food regulation ascertains much lower values for maximum aflatoxin contents in food articles than that the Indian food low does. Indian food business operators seldom have to face consequences due to high aflatoxin contents, particularly in samples of exported goods, despite the fact that detoxification (removal of aflatoxins from foods) to some extent is possible.

Keywords Aflatoxin • Aspergillus • Crop contaminant • Detoxification • Food rejection Moist storage Mycotoxin


AAA Aromatic amino acid

BCAA Branched-chain amino acid

DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid

EU European Union

FBO Food business operator

FSSAI Food Safety and Standards Authority of India

ICRISAT International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

mRNA Messenger ribonucleic acid

ppb Part per billion

ppm Part per million

U.S. FDA United States Food and Drug Administration © Springer International Publishing AG 2017

R.K. Sharma and S. Parisi, Toxins and Contaminants in Indian Food Products, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-48049-7_2

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