• • Video game challenges require mindful processing of new content to apply it appropriately and successfully.
  • • Players must track more than one event at a time in a video game, remember details, and use many other cognitive skills for problem solving.
  • • Video games can coach players to self-monitor their thinking and learning, and their strategies for making decisions and solving problems.
  • • Video games can teach learners how to learn, and how to approach new learning tasks.
  • • Images and sounds in video games can help make abstract concepts more memorable and concrete, and they provide opportunities to rehearse transfer in a variety of target tasks and contexts.


  • • Video games are interactive and responsive to player input; the game state reflects all previous player inputs.
  • • Immediate performance feedback and cumulative ongoing feedback in video games provide constant assessment that players welcome. Players expect feedback, failure, and eventual success in video games.
  • • Video games provide unlimited chances to rehearse skills and receive interactive intelligent feedback based on many previous actions, not just the most recent action.
  • • Games can deliver dynamic assessment, where feedback is not an end-state but an opportunity to reflect on and learn from errors, receive specific and individualized help and coaching, and try again until successful.
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