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Home arrow Philosophy arrow The fathers of the church

A short course of lectures
«The fathers of the church»





Whether the greatest pleasure occurs in generation by means of coition.Which cause is naturally prior. On the number of causes.Whether official parts are composed from homogenous ones by means of continuity.Whether male and female co-exist in one and the same thing.Whether sensation exists in uniform members [membris similibus] and whether operation exists in non-uniform members.Whether every animal has a fixed type of nourishment.BOOK NINEWhether every animal has every sense.Whether this book has animals for its subject.Whether skin and web [tela] are necessary to an animal.Whether the organ of touch and taste is in the heart and whether the organs of the other senses are in the head.Whether the blood is generated first in the heart or in the liver.Why insanity follows after being bitten by a rabid dog.Whether the soul's power operates through a mediating heat.Whether a softer heart is better.Whether a male grows more slowly outside the uterus than a woman does.Why salt placed in water liquefies, but it does not liquefy when placed on a burning tile or in oil (or boiling honey).Whether the heart is hotter than the spirit.Whether sperm is necessary for the generation of animals.Whether an organic member that has been cut off can be restored.Whether desire for coition is caused by the hot or the cold.Why ears may be located on various parts of the head although the eyes, nevertheless, are located close together. Whether the sperm is of the nature of parts or of some superfluity.Whether in a wind egg the white has to be distinguished from the yellow.Why is it that must, although it is clearer, does not cause drunkenness?Whether the marrow is the nutriment for bones.Whether the ant gathers seeds. Whether breasts ought to be located on the chest in a woman.Whether all bones are nourished.Whether the nerves are of a melancholic or phlegmatic complexion.Whether the brain is cold owing to the heart's tempering action.Why the exterior members are divided into pairs, while the interior members are not.Whether the human body should be less hairy than the bodies of other animals.Whether it is necessary for every animal to have members specially designated for generation.Whether wind eggs are generated from a superfluity of sperm.Why some people who eat more are thin, whereas others who eat only a little are fat.Whether physiognomy can be established on the basis of parts of the body.Whether a sensitive soul can be produced through the power of the semen.Why birds imitate the human in speech more than the other animals.Whether the web is produced from the spider's substance or from some superfluity it has.Whether operations occur through similar or dissimilar parts.Whether some sweat can be bloody. Whether drink is necessary for an animal.Whether the heart is susceptible to illness.Whether fish are nourished by water.Whether an animal that has a large heart is fearful.Whether the deer is an animal possessing judgment.Whether the soul is in the sperm.Whether every animal that has urine has excrement.Whether bloodless animals are naturally cold.BOOK ONEBOOK EIGHTEENWhether the generation of one that shares each sex is natural.BOOK THREEBOOK FIVEWhether in respect to motive parts bloodless animals should surpass those with blood.On the nutriment and the drink of flyers.Whether a power regulating life exists in a human.Whether the menses are necessary for generation after impregnation.Whether honey is made in the bee's body or outside it.Whether sleep is present in every animal. Whether thick blood is more nourishing than thin blood.Whether all animal members lead back to a single member.Whether the arteries take their origin from the heart or the brain.Whether the yolk of the egg is generated from menstrual blood or from some other moisture.Why one who has been wounded in the arm's muscle loses the power of speech.Whether the power that is in the semen exerts any power in the production of the intellectual soul.On rainwater.Whether the lion's neck is continuous and not hollow.Why someone suffering a fever lost the knowledge of letters.Whether the bones have sensation.Whether the animal is nourished from the yolk.Whether touching the diaphragm is a cause of laughter.BOOK TWELVEWhether the lamb will flee the wolf without perceiving that there is something harmful in it.Whether a variety of organic parts is necessary to the animal.Why vision takes pleasure more in the color green than in any other color.Whether age can be renewed by taking the poison of a viper or some other poison.Whether anything like a monster exists in nature.Whether one element is dominant in any given sense organ.Whether sterility is a natural affliction [passio].Whether the human foot naturally bends to the front, and the hand to the rear.In respect to which part is physiognomy especially carried out? Whether some of the bile or choler is naturally sent to the intestines.Whether urine is a simple or mixed body. Whether old age can be slowed down. Whether parts in an animal have a location like the parts of the universe.Whether of all the humors blood alone nourishes.Why the owl [bubo] does not see in the daytime.On the customs of the wolf.Whether birds ought to have a double stomach, like a liver and crop.On teeth.Whether the power of the soul must be in the semen.Whether a fetus can be generated from one part of the sperm.Why the rational animal has only one species.BOOK ELEVENWhy people in warm places have a smaller stature and less strength and boldness than those in cold places.Whether the white of the egg is warmer than the yolk, or contrariwise.Whether an animal having a shell must naturally be enclosed inside the shell.Whether the first digestion is in the mouth.Which elements predominate in homogenous parts.Whether homogenous [consimiles] parts are generated immediately from the elements.Whether motion is present in every animal.On birds' eggs.Why was it that someone who saw an enemy dropped dead?Whether the embryo emits superfluities in the womb.Whether the period for generation among men lasts longer than does the period for conception in women.Whether sperm is a material part of the fetus [conceptus].On the urine of brute beasts.Whether the bones are necessary.Whether the diaphragm is necessary.Whether art and craft are more suited to ringed flyers than to other animals.Why a person who passes by a corpse suffers goosebumps.Whether the descriptive process is more necessary than the process that assigns causes.Why some animals have feet and some do not.Additional Questions for the Fourth Book Why wise men and philosophers very often generate foolish children.Why charcoal is kindled by a crystal when it is placed opposite the sun's rays.Whether the nerves take their origin from the brain or the heart.On the color of the eyes.Whether the right foot is more unfettered and better suited for motion than the left.BOOK NINETEENWhether the heart is generated first. Why does a dead person staying in the water rise to the top, and a living one sink to the bottom?Whether the cause of similarity or dissimilarity among the members of various animals occurs as a result of the complexion of mixables or on account of the soul.Whether food will be necessary to the animal.On the nature of teeth.Why roasted meat strengthens more than does boiled meat.On animals that ruminate and have long extremities.Whether the motion of the lungs is natural.Why were eyes and ears absent in a boy that was born?Whether blood is the last food for the members.Whether an animal naturally has to place its right foot forward.BOOK SIXTEENWhether the male's flesh is softer than the female's flesh.Whether the power's strength causes the generation of a male.Whether the first generation of the blood occurs in the heart or in the liver.Whether the heat, which is an instrument of the soul, is an elemental heat.Whether the arteries are necessary to an animal.Whether the motion of birds, which is flight, is natural.Why marine fish are very bland although they are nourished on salt water.Whether blood is necessary for an animal.Whether youth can be restored.Whether art or craft is present in beasts.On the sheep and its properties.Whether an affliction of the diaphragm disturbs the intellect.Whether hands should belong to the human alone.Whether all members are generated simultaneously.BOOK THIRTEENWhether the nerves are necessary.Whether pleasure is greater in brute beasts than in the human at the time of intercourse.Whether cartilage is necessary.BOOK FOURTEENWhat is that first thing to which all the animal members lead back?On hair.Whether blood is more abundant in men than in women.Whether animals take nourishment when they lie hidden.Whether sleep is necessary for an animal.Whether sensation is in the brain. Whether veins are necessary in an animal body.Whether the vegetative soul comes into being in a natural way.Why a human's chest is broader, with respect to its size, than that of other animals.BOOK EIGHTQUESTIONS CONCERNING ARISTOTLE'S ON ANIMALSWhether this power is corrupted once the fetus is formed.Whether any animal ought to lack a spleen, a gall bladder, which is its reservoir [cista], and lungs.Whether nature intends the generation of a female.Whether the male is better nourishment than the female.Whether fish have hearing. Whether animals breathe during the time of concealment.Whether venous blood is thicker than arterial blood.Why the blood of the one slain flows while the murderer is present.On the generation of animals, in relation to wind.On voice.Whether reptiles can live long without food.Whether desire in the operation of intercourse is greater in men or in women.On the signs of conception.BOOK SEVENWhether the upper intestines should be thinner and longer and more delicate than the lower ones.Whether sperm is generated immediately from blood.Whether coition is necessary for the generation of animals.Why women have such large breasts, and men do not.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSWhether every animal ought to be horned.Whether a difference in ages ought to be calculated according to seven-year periods.Whether friendship and enmity are present in all brute animals.Whether the mule and she-mule are sterile by nature.Whether the heart is pyramidal in shape.Whether some animals should live in a social group.Related questions about intercourse.Whether sleep is an affect of the common or a particular sense.Whether sleep is an affect [passio] of the heart or the brain.Whether growth is necessary for living things.Why a morsel of bread placed in a very strong wine increases the sharpness of the wine.Whether serpents should have members that serve the motive power.Whether pestilential disease [morbus pestilentialis] arises from an infection of the air.On the sicknesses of pigs, dogs, and horses.At what time especially should human generation take place?Whether every flyer also walks.Whether the cause of a monstrosity stems from the matter or from the efficient cause.Whether there is a double mode of proceeding in science?Why bulging eyes indicate a disturbed power of discretion and why sunken eyes indicate acute vision.Whether there is a mixture of semen and nutriment in fish eggs.Whether every animal that has a vessel to receive the first superfluity, which is excrement, also has a vessel for the second superfluity, which is urine.Whether male and female diversify species.Why all animals except the human are very noisy during intercourse.Whether spirit is generated in the heart. Whether several intestines are required beyond the stomach.Whether a human should naturally have wings and fins.Whether a male or female has a longer life span.Whether putrefaction is a path to generation.Whether the marrow is necessary for the bones' nourishment.Whether the bee can produce honey.Whether touch is in the flesh or in something analogous to it.Whether the first digestion, which occurs in the stomach, changes the nutriment into a different species.Why members that are weakened by hunger are immediately strengthened by food that has been received, though not yet incorporated, in the stomach.Whether all the elements concur for the generation of an animal generated by putrefaction.Whether zirbus and fat have a complexion that is naturally hot or cold.Whether spirit is a body. BOOK SIXWhether every voice is significative. Whether bile [fel] is only a superfluity.Whether blood is a principle of the animal's preservation or is a natural source of corruption.Whether animals like this are generated by a superior power.Whether life is preserved longer in places that are warm and moist, cold and dry, or cold and moist.BOOK TWOOn laughter.Whether the final differentia is convertible with the species.Whence the serpent's motion begins, as if from a principle.Whether blood is the nutriment for the stomach.Whether some power in the semen is the cause of resemblance.Whether parts that have been cut off live after they have been cut off.Whether generation of a mule from a mare and an ass is natural.Whether local motion particularly agrees with birds.On certain properties of eggs. Whether milk is necessary for the nourishment of the fetus.Whether the four humors are generated from the same nutriment.Whether the mother or the father is more responsible for an obstacle to generation.On the complexion of the heart.Whether a spider naturally produces a web.Whether the heart has a dedicated location in serpents, in ringed animals, and in bloodless animals.Which cause the natural philosopher ought to consider more.Whether these animals have the first act of life without the second.BOOK FOURWhether the liver is generated from semen or from menstrual blood.Whether the elements exist in act in homogenous parts.Whether a male or a female can be generated by contrivance.Whether veins exist in every part of the body.Whether female birds can be impregnated by the male's kiss or odor alone.Whether only women suffer menstruation.Whether sterility has its root in the soul or the body.Whether sperm is derived more from one part than from another.Whether a soul is one in number in some part that has been divided.Whether sleep occurs in the embryo.Whether an animal having parts of animals different in species can be generated from two animals that are different in species.Whether the male is formed more quickly than the female.Why musk placed among fragrant things loses its aroma and later, when placed in a foul-smelling place, it recovers its odor.Whether there is more pleasure in the knowledge [cognitio] of superior or inferior things.On the fetus before and after birth.On the birth of a woman and her circumstances.Whether sex is necessary for the generation of animals.Whether the egg white is generated from some superfluity of the egg or from some substance of the one laying the egg.Whether pleasure is greater in men than in women during coition.Why the suture in the bone of a human skull is more noticeable than in the bone of other animals.On the cock's song.Whether the moon has dominion over the menstrual flow.Whether fleshiness on a person's head impairs the intellect.On chicks.Whether one who has a defect in some part necessarily generates an animal that is defective in the same part.Whether the brain is naturally cold and moist.Why a large forehead indicates a slow person, prone to foolishness, and a small one indicates a good disposition.Whether sperm comes forth from the entire body.Whether brute animals know friendship or enmity.Whether a mole [molyn] can be generated naturally in a woman from semen emitted through pollution in sleep.Whether this power is from the father's soul.BIBLIOGRAPHYWhether coition is necessary for every animal.Whether the embryo breathes in the womb.Whether a man has to be larger than a female.BOOK SEVENTEENWhether animals are alive at the time of concealment.Whether the eye has a different nature according to its colors.Why the blood in the heart is liquid and is coagulated outside of it.On hair.Whether a more intense heat is found in the element of fire, or in a mixture.Whether a heart so flows to the other parts that it receives nothing from them.Whether sperm is a superfluity of the last food.Whether flyers are more cautious than walkers.Whether an immobile animal is always aquatic and not terrestrial.Whether blood is more abundant in thin animals than in fat ones.Whether voice is natural or voluntary or artificial.Whether the embryo is nourished before its formation.Whether the vital power has something analogous to it and whether it exists in some organ.Whether our intellect can achieve knowledge [cognitio] of the first cause.Whether brute animals are differentiated according to their habits.Whether the informative power for the other members is in the heart after it has been formed.Whether the emission of semen weakens the male more than the female.BOOK FIFTEENWhether sneezing is a sign of good or evil.Whether it is by nature, from customary activity, or by instruction that cunning is present in animals that walk.Whether the intellective soul is created and infused into the body simultaneously.Why madmen have so much strength.Whether the male is better suited for proper behavior [mores] than the female.Whether the camel and the horse distinguish their mothers from others.Whether a wind egg, if the male's sperm comes into contact with it, is suited for generation.Whether animals lie dormant in winter on account of fear or weakness.Albert the Great's Questions concerning "On Animals"Whether females produce sperm.Whether food or drink is more necessary.Whether the male is hotter than the female.Whether the veins arise from the heart or the liver.Whether long and conspicuous lines on the hands may be signs of a long life, and whether short ones are signs of a shorter life.Why the members are discovered to be cold in one who is dying but they are warm in one already dead.On the properties indicating coition.Whether the non-living is naturally prior to the living.Whether the human ought to lack a tail naturally.Whether birds and fish ought not to chew.Whether the marrow is hot.Why snow is preserved in barley chaff.Why a certain wise man after being bled forgot all that he knew.Whether fish eat their young.Whether wax and honey are produced from the same material.Whether the retention of the sperm is more harmful to men than is the retention of menses in women.Why pears placed in barley chaff become ripe.Whether an animal is born to seek out nourishment more at night than by day.Whether the motive power proceeds from the posterior or anterior part of the brain.Whether the male and the female are especially urged on at the same time to generate.Why the human lungs are more solid and are not divided into lobes.Whether flyers naturally have to generate by laying eggs.Whether a pulse exists in every animal.Whether the Philosopher ought to treat the mode of dividing here.Whether spirit is necessary in animals.Whether an aquatic animal, once its form is changed, can become terrestrial.Whether there is something intermediate between living and non-living.BOOK TENWhether the operation of coition flourishes more in a cold or hot region.Whether any animal breathes air.Why the kidneys and the eyes and ears are divided into pairs.Whether the heat in an artery is natural or accidental.In which season coition flourishes more. Whether the menstrual flow is sudden. Whether choler or bile is the cause of a short lifespan.
 
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