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A short course of lectures
«The fathers of the church»

Whether the intellective soul is created and infused into the body simultaneously.Why a morsel of bread placed in a very strong wine increases the sharpness of the wine.BOOK FIVEWhy pears placed in barley chaff become ripe.Whether every animal has a fixed type of nourishment.Whether the heart is hotter than the spirit.Why vision takes pleasure more in the color green than in any other color.Whether the generation of one that shares each sex is natural.Why people in warm places have a smaller stature and less strength and boldness than those in cold places.BOOK TENWhether flyers naturally have to generate by laying eggs.Whether of all the humors blood alone nourishes.Whether the elements exist in act in homogenous parts.Whether female birds can be impregnated by the male's kiss or odor alone.Why someone suffering a fever lost the knowledge of letters.Whether the retention of the sperm is more harmful to men than is the retention of menses in women.Whether food will be necessary to the animal.Whether age can be renewed by taking the poison of a viper or some other poison.On the birth of a woman and her circumstances.Whether parts that have been cut off live after they have been cut off.BOOK FIFTEENWhether life is preserved longer in places that are warm and moist, cold and dry, or cold and moist.Whether all members are generated simultaneously.Whether the human ought to lack a tail naturally.On the urine of brute beasts.On teeth.Whether male and female diversify species.Whether an aquatic animal, once its form is changed, can become terrestrial.Whether animals breathe during the time of concealment.Whether the lion's neck is continuous and not hollow.Whether the first digestion, which occurs in the stomach, changes the nutriment into a different species.Whether a heart so flows to the other parts that it receives nothing from them.On hair.Whether brute animals know friendship or enmity.Whether an animal having parts of animals different in species can be generated from two animals that are different in species.Whether the male's flesh is softer than the female's flesh.Whether the cause of similarity or dissimilarity among the members of various animals occurs as a result of the complexion of mixables or on account of the soul.Why the rational animal has only one species.Whether a fetus can be generated from one part of the sperm.On the customs of the wolf.Whether an affliction of the diaphragm disturbs the intellect.Whether youth can be restored.In which season coition flourishes more. Why one who has been wounded in the arm's muscle loses the power of speech.Whether sperm is necessary for the generation of animals.Whether the heat in an artery is natural or accidental.Related questions about intercourse.Whether the informative power for the other members is in the heart after it has been formed.Whether the ant gathers seeds. Whether some animals should live in a social group.Whether fleshiness on a person's head impairs the intellect.Why roasted meat strengthens more than does boiled meat.Whether it is by nature, from customary activity, or by instruction that cunning is present in animals that walk.Whether the embryo is nourished before its formation.Whether the embryo breathes in the womb.Whether blood is a principle of the animal's preservation or is a natural source of corruption.Whether fish are nourished by water.Whether in a wind egg the white has to be distinguished from the yellow.Whether thick blood is more nourishing than thin blood.Whether there is more pleasure in the knowledge [cognitio] of superior or inferior things.Whether the white of the egg is warmer than the yolk, or contrariwise.Whether sensation is in the brain. Whether the arteries take their origin from the heart or the brain.Whether the motion of the lungs is natural.Whether the nerves are of a melancholic or phlegmatic complexion.Whether anything like a monster exists in nature.BOOK FOURWhether sleep is an affect of the common or a particular sense.Why marine fish are very bland although they are nourished on salt water.Whether this book has animals for its subject.Whether veins exist in every part of the body.Whether the organ of touch and taste is in the heart and whether the organs of the other senses are in the head.Whether the eye has a different nature according to its colors.On laughter.BOOK ONEWhether a wind egg, if the male's sperm comes into contact with it, is suited for generation.Whether spirit is generated in the heart. Whether the first digestion is in the mouth.QUESTIONS CONCERNING ARISTOTLE'S ON ANIMALSWhether the diaphragm is necessary.Whether birds ought to have a double stomach, like a liver and crop.Why insanity follows after being bitten by a rabid dog.BOOK SIXTEENWhy the members are discovered to be cold in one who is dying but they are warm in one already dead.Whether a variety of organic parts is necessary to the animal.Whether bloodless animals are naturally cold.Whether the power's strength causes the generation of a male.On the nature of teeth.Whether a man has to be larger than a female.Whether art or craft is present in beasts.Whether a sensitive soul can be produced through the power of the semen.Whether our intellect can achieve knowledge [cognitio] of the first cause.Whether an immobile animal is always aquatic and not terrestrial.Whether the mother or the father is more responsible for an obstacle to generation.Whether an organic member that has been cut off can be restored.Why was it that someone who saw an enemy dropped dead?Whether veins are necessary in an animal body.Whether the right foot is more unfettered and better suited for motion than the left.Whether the moon has dominion over the menstrual flow.BOOK TWELVEWhether the bones have sensation.Why salt placed in water liquefies, but it does not liquefy when placed on a burning tile or in oil (or boiling honey).Whether sperm is a material part of the fetus [conceptus].Whether sperm is generated immediately from blood.Why birds imitate the human in speech more than the other animals.Whether the brain is naturally cold and moist.Whether every animal that has urine has excrement.Why musk placed among fragrant things loses its aroma and later, when placed in a foul-smelling place, it recovers its odor.Whether the bones are necessary.Whether it is necessary for every animal to have members specially designated for generation.Whether the yolk of the egg is generated from menstrual blood or from some other moisture.Whether blood is the nutriment for the stomach.Whether desire in the operation of intercourse is greater in men or in women.Whether the descriptive process is more necessary than the process that assigns causes.BOOK EIGHTOn the sicknesses of pigs, dogs, and horses.Whether serpents should have members that serve the motive power.On rainwater.Whether blood is necessary for an animal.Why the exterior members are divided into pairs, while the interior members are not.Whether a mole [molyn] can be generated naturally in a woman from semen emitted through pollution in sleep.Why is it that must, although it is clearer, does not cause drunkenness?Why snow is preserved in barley chaff.Whether flyers are more cautious than walkers.Whether wax and honey are produced from the same material.Whether blood is the last food for the members.Whether a more intense heat is found in the element of fire, or in a mixture.Whether several intestines are required beyond the stomach.Whether the soul is in the sperm.Whether the heat, which is an instrument of the soul, is an elemental heat.Why ears may be located on various parts of the head although the eyes, nevertheless, are located close together. Whether cartilage is necessary.BOOK EIGHTEENWhether motion is present in every animal.On chicks.Whether reptiles can live long without food.Whether there is a mixture of semen and nutriment in fish eggs.Whether sleep is necessary for an animal.Whether art and craft are more suited to ringed flyers than to other animals.Whether the marrow is the nutriment for bones.BOOK ELEVENWhether sleep is present in every animal. Whether official parts are composed from homogenous ones by means of continuity.Whether the final differentia is convertible with the species.Whether fish eat their young.Whether the mule and she-mule are sterile by nature.Whether the heart is generated first. Whether honey is made in the bee's body or outside it.Which elements predominate in homogenous parts.Whether this power is corrupted once the fetus is formed.Whether spirit is a body. Whether the motion of birds, which is flight, is natural.Whether all bones are nourished.Whether choler or bile is the cause of a short lifespan.Whether some power in the semen is the cause of resemblance.On animals that ruminate and have long extremities.Whether the egg white is generated from some superfluity of the egg or from some substance of the one laying the egg.Whether milk is necessary for the nourishment of the fetus.Whether the greatest pleasure occurs in generation by means of coition.Whether the four humors are generated from the same nutriment.Whether this power is from the father's soul.In respect to which part is physiognomy especially carried out? BOOK NINETEENWhether coition is necessary for the generation of animals.Whether the arteries are necessary to an animal.On hair.Whether there is something intermediate between living and non-living.Whether sterility has its root in the soul or the body.Whether operations occur through similar or dissimilar parts.Whether spirit is necessary in animals.Why charcoal is kindled by a crystal when it is placed opposite the sun's rays.Whether sperm is a superfluity of the last food.Whether pestilential disease [morbus pestilentialis] arises from an infection of the air.Whether the Philosopher ought to treat the mode of dividing here.Why some animals have feet and some do not.On voice.Whether male and female co-exist in one and the same thing.Whether sneezing is a sign of good or evil.Whether the heart has a dedicated location in serpents, in ringed animals, and in bloodless animals.On certain properties of eggs. Whether every flyer also walks.Whether the nerves are necessary.Whether animals take nourishment when they lie hidden.Whether females produce sperm.Whether the male is hotter than the female.Why the kidneys and the eyes and ears are divided into pairs.BOOK NINEWhich cause the natural philosopher ought to consider more.Whether sperm is derived more from one part than from another.Why were eyes and ears absent in a boy that was born?Whether the operation of coition flourishes more in a cold or hot region.Whether the motive power proceeds from the posterior or anterior part of the brain.Whether a male or a female can be generated by contrivance.Whether the human foot naturally bends to the front, and the hand to the rear.Whether the lamb will flee the wolf without perceiving that there is something harmful in it.Why all animals except the human are very noisy during intercourse.Whether local motion particularly agrees with birds.Whether some sweat can be bloody. Whether food or drink is more necessary.Whether the first generation of the blood occurs in the heart or in the liver.What is that first thing to which all the animal members lead back?Why a person who passes by a corpse suffers goosebumps.Whether homogenous [consimiles] parts are generated immediately from the elements.Whether drink is necessary for an animal.Whether fish have hearing. Whether hands should belong to the human alone.Whether the nerves take their origin from the brain or the heart.Whether the bee can produce honey.Whether every animal that has a vessel to receive the first superfluity, which is excrement, also has a vessel for the second superfluity, which is urine.Whether generation of a mule from a mare and an ass is natural.Which cause is naturally prior. On the number of causes.Whether a difference in ages ought to be calculated according to seven-year periods.Whether any animal breathes air.Whether urine is a simple or mixed body. Whether a softer heart is better.Whether nature intends the generation of a female.Whether venous blood is thicker than arterial blood.Albert the Great's Questions concerning "On Animals"Whether sex is necessary for the generation of animals.Whether touch is in the flesh or in something analogous to it.On the cock's song.Whether the vital power has something analogous to it and whether it exists in some organ.Whether some of the bile or choler is naturally sent to the intestines.Whether the sperm is of the nature of parts or of some superfluity.Why the blood of the one slain flows while the murderer is present.Why the human lungs are more solid and are not divided into lobes.Whether blood is more abundant in thin animals than in fat ones.Whether voice is natural or voluntary or artificial.Why a certain wise man after being bled forgot all that he knew.Whence the serpent's motion begins, as if from a principle.Whether every voice is significative. Why some people who eat more are thin, whereas others who eat only a little are fat.Whether birds and fish ought not to chew.Whether an animal is born to seek out nourishment more at night than by day.Whether sleep is an affect [passio] of the heart or the brain.Whether all the elements concur for the generation of an animal generated by putrefaction.Whether the emission of semen weakens the male more than the female.Whether the camel and the horse distinguish their mothers from others.Whether the brain is cold owing to the heart's tempering action.Why a human's chest is broader, with respect to its size, than that of other animals.Whether pleasure is greater in men than in women during coition.Whether any animal ought to lack a spleen, a gall bladder, which is its reservoir [cista], and lungs.Whether sperm comes forth from the entire body.Whether wind eggs are generated from a superfluity of sperm.Whether the embryo emits superfluities in the womb.On the generation of animals, in relation to wind.Whether the vegetative soul comes into being in a natural way.Whether only women suffer menstruation.Whether all animal members lead back to a single member.Whether the animal is nourished from the yolk.Whether a soul is one in number in some part that has been divided.BOOK TWOOn the complexion of the heart.Whether growth is necessary for living things.Whether every animal has every sense.Whether sensation exists in uniform members [membris similibus] and whether operation exists in non-uniform members.Whether sterility is a natural affliction [passio].Why bulging eyes indicate a disturbed power of discretion and why sunken eyes indicate acute vision.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSBOOK FOURTEENWhether the heart is pyramidal in shape.Whether an animal having a shell must naturally be enclosed inside the shell.Why the suture in the bone of a human skull is more noticeable than in the bone of other animals.BOOK SEVENWhether breasts ought to be located on the chest in a woman.Whether old age can be slowed down. Whether the cause of a monstrosity stems from the matter or from the efficient cause.Whether the web is produced from the spider's substance or from some superfluity it has.Whether skin and web [tela] are necessary to an animal.On the signs of conception.Whether the male is better suited for proper behavior [mores] than the female.Whether an animal naturally has to place its right foot forward.Whether desire for coition is caused by the hot or the cold.Whether putrefaction is a path to generation.Whether animals lie dormant in winter on account of fear or weakness.BIBLIOGRAPHYWhy members that are weakened by hunger are immediately strengthened by food that has been received, though not yet incorporated, in the stomach.BOOK THREEWhether brute animals are differentiated according to their habits.Whether a male or female has a longer life span.Whether friendship and enmity are present in all brute animals.Whether the non-living is naturally prior to the living.Whether one element is dominant in any given sense organ.On birds' eggs.On the nutriment and the drink of flyers.Whether the veins arise from the heart or the liver.Whether physiognomy can be established on the basis of parts of the body.Whether the menstrual flow is sudden. Whether the power of the soul must be in the semen.Whether the male is formed more quickly than the female.Whether bile [fel] is only a superfluity.Why the owl [bubo] does not see in the daytime.Whether the upper intestines should be thinner and longer and more delicate than the lower ones.Whether a power regulating life exists in a human.Whether the male is better nourishment than the female.Whether these animals have the first act of life without the second.Why women have such large breasts, and men do not.Whether touching the diaphragm is a cause of laughter.Whether an animal that has a large heart is fearful.Why a large forehead indicates a slow person, prone to foolishness, and a small one indicates a good disposition.Whether the marrow is necessary for the bones' nourishment.Whether long and conspicuous lines on the hands may be signs of a long life, and whether short ones are signs of a shorter life.At what time especially should human generation take place?On the properties indicating coition.Why does a dead person staying in the water rise to the top, and a living one sink to the bottom?Why madmen have so much strength.Whether one who has a defect in some part necessarily generates an animal that is defective in the same part.Whether pleasure is greater in brute beasts than in the human at the time of intercourse.BOOK SEVENTEENWhether the deer is an animal possessing judgment.Whether every animal ought to be horned.Whether the marrow is hot.Whether the power that is in the semen exerts any power in the production of the intellectual soul.Why wise men and philosophers very often generate foolish children.Whether the heart is susceptible to illness.Whether a human should naturally have wings and fins.Whether blood is more abundant in men than in women.Whether sleep occurs in the embryo.Whether a pulse exists in every animal.Whether coition is necessary for every animal.Whether a spider naturally produces a web.BOOK SIXWhether there is a double mode of proceeding in science?Whether the menses are necessary for generation after impregnation.Whether the human body should be less hairy than the bodies of other animals.Whether parts in an animal have a location like the parts of the universe.BOOK THIRTEENOn the color of the eyes.Whether a male grows more slowly outside the uterus than a woman does.Whether zirbus and fat have a complexion that is naturally hot or cold.Whether animals are alive at the time of concealment.Whether in respect to motive parts bloodless animals should surpass those with blood.Whether the liver is generated from semen or from menstrual blood.Additional Questions for the Fourth Book On the sheep and its properties.Whether animals like this are generated by a superior power.Whether the blood is generated first in the heart or in the liver.Whether the male and the female are especially urged on at the same time to generate.Why the blood in the heart is liquid and is coagulated outside of it.Whether the soul's power operates through a mediating heat.On the fetus before and after birth.Whether the period for generation among men lasts longer than does the period for conception in women.
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