Orientalism, Segmentation, and Encompassment
Different football (fan) researchers have developed and addressed ideas of shifting or plural loyalties and also of secondary and flexible fandom in football. Hans Kristian Hognestad, for example, uses the term ‘polygamy’ (2012, p. 389) to address how fans support more than one club, which he figures can be understood ‘also as a result of physical explorations and social networking between football communities’ (ibid.). Cornel Sandvoss locates four different categories in his research on Bayer Leverkusen fans that produce plural loyalties: ‘migration and family links, distant mediated encounters, textual activity and membership to fan networks and travel and cosmopolitan consciousness’ (Sandvoss 2012, p. 86). Victoria Schwenzer and Nicole Selmer, who have worked on multiple identifications in migration and football, emphasise that a fan can support more than one team to express his or her belonging to both the host society and the home country (2010, pp. 402-3). They use the example of the 2006 World Cup in Germany and the 2008 European Championship in Austria and Switzerland to point out that by using Turkish-German flags, people were producing hybrid fandom to represent hybrid concepts of belonging (2010, pp. 407-8). This chapter does not however primarily focus on plural loyalties or secondary fandom, which do usually exist simultaneously and are not necessarily contradictory, but with loyalties that ‘shift’ for a certain amount of time in a specific context (cf. Szogs 2015).
In order to analyse the different othering processes that will be discussed in this chapter, I will use Gerd Baumann’s three grammars of selfing and othering to bring all these ‘selfings’ and ‘otherings’ together (Baumann 2004).1 Baumann adapts the three concepts of selfing and othering practices by Edward Said, Edward E. Evans-Pritchard, and Louis Dumont in order to expand these ‘grammars of identity/alterity’. Said’s concept of ‘orientalism’, Evans-Pritchard’s concept of ‘segmentation’, and Dumont’s concept of ‘encompassment’ serve Baumann to define, advance and refine how individuals and groups ‘self’ themselves and ‘other’ others. All these three grammars are evident in the othering practices of the interviewed Galatasaray and Fenerbahqe fans. Some are performed rather secondarily; others are a crucial part of fan performances, such as orientalism. In this subchapter, I shortly introduce the concepts of Said, Evans-Pritchard and Dumont in the way Baumann has adapted and enhanced these binary grammars to, indeed, ternary grammars.