Carbon Footprint and the Industrial Life Cycle: From Urban Planning to Recycling

I Sustainability and Urban PlanningUrban Planning in Developing World: Which Alternative for Poor Cities?Between Theories and Praxis, Is Urban Planning More Than an Instrument of Management?Global South, Urbanization and PlanningPoverty and Urban ManagementUrban Planning in Practice: The Cases of Koudougou, Burkina Faso, and Montes Claros, BrasilLessons Learned from KoudougouLessons Learned from Montes ClarosFrom and Towards the South: Rethinking Urban PlanningReferencesSocial and Economic Management of Sustainable Neighborhoods Regeneration ProjectsIntroductionEvolution of Intervention Practice. Last Experiences of Urban Regeneration in SpainThe Last Generation of Interventions in Historic CentersRetrofitting Developmentalism Peripheral Neighborhoods of the Twentieth CenturyAddressing Social Exclusion from Urban RegenerationTaking Action in Urban Tourist TissuesStrategic and Sectorial RegenerationsUrban Regeneration Model: Environmental, Social and Economic Aspects. The Specific Case of MadridCoincidences and Instruments in a Rather Diffuse Model in the Situation of Madrid. ARIs—Integration Rehabilitation AreasChronology and Proposal of Stages in Regeneration of Neighborhoods in MadridEnd of Cycle and New Legal Framework. The Law 3/8 of 2013ConclusionsPresent Situation and Future Prospects Reveal Urban Regeneration as a Necessary Practice to Achieve the Challenges of the PresentUrban Sustainability in the Way of Been ImplementedReferencesUrban Planning Research in the Climate Change Era: Transdisciplinary Approach Toward Sustainable CitiesIntroductionUrbanisation and Climate Change InteractionLong-term Global Urbanisation and Environmental ChallengeUrban Planning Toward the Sustainability ScienceThe Cross-assessment Approach: A Tool for Vision-led PlanningThe Impact of Technological Innovation on Urban SustainabilityConclusionsReferencesEdge Open Spaces in Madrid and Its Metropolitan Area (Spain), Sustainable Urban Planning and Environmental ValuesIntroductionMethodologyOpen Spaces Evolution in Madrid During the Recent Municipal General Plans (1963-1997)Recent Evolution: Spanish Housing BubbleGeneral Plan of 1946. The First Green Belt of MadridGeneral Plan of 1963. Metropolitan Green Belt ApproachGeneral Plan of 1985. The Short-Lived Enlargement of Protected AreasGeneral Plan of1997. The Decrease and Fragmentation of the Green Belt. Edge Open Space ConfigurationEdge Open Spaces Evolution in Madrid and Intervention ProposalsTypes of Edge Open Spaces in Madrid CityTerritorial Value of Edge Open Spaces in Regional ContextProposals for the EOS Insertion in Regional Green Infrastructure PlanningConclusionsReferencesControlled Landscapes or Building Sustainability in Public Spaces. Case of Studies of Padova and MoscowOccupation of the Territory and Sustainability in Transport in MadridIntroductionSustainable Mobility in the Community of MadridPlanning of Land Use and Its Relation to TransportThe Occupation of the Territory in the Community of MadridEvolution of Land Occupied in the Fringe of Radial RoadsEvolution of Land Occupied by Single-Family HousesOccupation of Industrial SpaceThe MallsEvolution of Densities in the Community of MadridThe Territorial Imbalance, Location of EmploymentPrivate VehiclesConclusionsReferencesPrivate Vehicle and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Spain: A War Without WinnerIntroductionVehicles and Greenhouse Gas EmissionsEuropean Strategy for Low-Emission MobilityGHG Transport Emissions in Spain, 15 Years EvolutionElectricity Generation in SpainGHG Emissions in the Community of Madrid. 15 Years EvolutionGHG Emissions in the Community of Cataluna. 15 Years EvolutionComparison Between Madrid and BarcelonaConclusionsReferencesII Urban Planning Policy ImplicationsImplementing COP 21IntroductionPolicy Making Versus ImplementationThe Wildavsky GapStrategy of ImplementationEmissions, GDP and EnergyTheoryEmpirical FindingsLongitudinal AnalysisCross-Sectional AnalysisThe Emission-Energy ConundrumComparative Country Inquiries: Energy-Emission ConundrumsHuge Poor Countries in Need of AssistanceIndiaIndonesiaBrazilBig Advanced Economies in Need of Fundamental Energy TransformationChinaSouth KoreaFairness in Emission ReductionPeruThe Wood Coal ProblematicThe Option of RenegingJapanIranConclusionsReferencesDo Municipalities Have the Right Tools to Become Zero Carbon Emissions Cities? ACCENT, a Pan-European Decision-Support Tool to Take Refurbishment Decisions at City Scale Based on Buildings Energy PerformanceIntroductionCo-creation Design ProcessWhy Don’t Existing Tools Answer to Municipalities Needs?Identifying Needs and Barriers at European Wide Scale, with Local and Empirical InformationEnergy Data Visualization NeedsNeeds of Follow-Up Tools for SEAPs ImplementationNeed of Decision-Support Tool for Energy PlanningNeed of Communication ToolsMain Barriers IdentifiedACCENT Tool Functionalities Which Answer to Real ChallengesMappingAction Sets EvaluationScenariosConnection with Other CitiesMaking It Happens: How Does ACCENT Tool Internally Work?A Replicable but Completely Adjustable Tool. The Customisation Made to the City of Valence (Spain)ConclusionsReferencesTowards a Climate-Resilient City: Collaborative Innovation for a ‘Green Shift’ in OsloIntroductionWicked and Unruly Problems: The Ultimate Challenge for Local GovernmentsThe Wickedness and Unruliness of Climate Change Mitigation and AdaptationCollaborative Innovation: The Proper Response to Wicked and Unruly ProblemsPublic InnovationCollaborative InnovationConditions for Successful Processes of Collaborative InnovationMitigating and Adapting to Climate Change Problems in the City of OsloOslo’s ‘Green Shift’Collaborative Innovation in OsloIdentification of Core StakeholdersInnovation in City GovernanceThe Role of Institutional Design and Public Leadership in Spurring Collaborative InnovationOslo’s Governance ModelEmerging Collaborative Innovation EffortsConclusion and Future ResearchReferencesEnergy Innovation in the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC): A Theoretical ApproachIntroductionSustainable Development, Economic Growth and Global WarmingA Theoretical Approach to the Sustainable Development Concept: The Cost of Climate ChangeEnergy Use and Evolution of Air Pollution Levels Within OECD CountriesThe Public Budget in Energy RD&D Within OECD Countries: Some Policy RecommendationsEconomic Growth and Environmental Pollution: The Role of Innovation Within the Environmental Kuznets CurveA Theoretical Approach to the EKC ModelEconomic Growth and the Energy Innovation ProcessEnergy Innovation Within the Environmental Kuznets Curve ModelTechnical Obsolescence in the EKC ModelSummary and Final ConclusionsReferencesMarginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACC): Unsolved Issues, Anomalies, and Alternative ProposalsIntroductionThe Traditional MACC Method and Its AnomaliesThe Taylor’s Method for Ranking Negative Abatement MeasuresThe Ward MethodThe Gain Maximizing (GM) MethodThe Extended MACC (EMAC) MethodThe Environmentalist (ENV) and the Greedy (GRE) MethodsThe Balanced Ordering (BOM) MethodThe Classification of Ranking Methods (Tau Distance to ENV and GRE)Case Studies; Comparison and Discussions of ResultsReport to the Committee on Climate Change Out to 2022 for the UK (Moran et al. 2008)United Nations Programme for the Development of Colombia (Behrentz 2014)Discussion of ResultsConclusionsReferencesGlobal and Local: Climate Change Policies as a Paradigm of Multilevel GovernanceClimate Change Goals Call for Deep Institutional AdaptationEuropean Urban Policies: From the Urban Acquis to the European Urban AgendaClimate Actions as a Paradigm of Multilevel GovernmentEurope 2050: Facing Energy Challenges and Shaping CitiesConclusionsReferencesIII Metrics for the Sustainability of Infrastructure Projects Carbon Footprint of Human Settlements in SpainIntroductionMethodologyHousehold Carbon Footprint of a RegionDatabases UsedResultsThe Consumption of Spanish Families by SettlementCarbon Footprint of Spanish Families by SettlementQuantifying Emissions LeakageConclusionsReferencesTheoretical Analysis of the Metrics for Measuring the Sustainability of Infrastructure ProjectsIntroductionThe Concept of SustainabilityDefinition of SustainabilityBenefits of Sustainability Thinking to Infrastructure ProjectsResearch MethodMetrics for Evaluating Sustainability of Infrastructure ProjectsBackground of Information on the SampleFrequency AnalysisAnalysis of Metrics by Key CharacteristicsAnalysis of Metrics by ThemeLessons LearntConclusionsReferencesImpact of Urban Policy on Public Transportation in Gauteng, South Africa: Smart or Dumb City Systems Is the QuestionIntroductionPolicies and Legislation Governing Public TransportationRea Vaya, Johannesburg Bus Rapid SystemThe Gautrain SystemMethodologyResults and DiscussionCycling in JohannesburgSmart Mobility Support System for the Reya Vaya and GautrainPublic Transport Uptake Levels of the Reya Vaya and GautrainConclusionReferencesIV Methodology for Calculating Industrial Carbon FootprintsTechnologies for the Bio-conversion of GHGs into High Added Value Products: Current State and Future ProspectsIntroductionBiotechnologies for Methane Abatement: Biodegradation and Bioconversion into Value Added BioproductsMicrobiology of CH4 TreatmentBioreactors for CH4 TreatmentBiopolymers from Methane: An Alternative to Petrochemical-Derived PlasticsProduction of Exopolysaccharides from CH4Production of Ectoine from CH4Biotechnologies for Nitrous Oxide Abatement and Valuable Bioproducts SynthesisConclusionsReferencesV Modelling a Low-Carbon City: Eco-city and Eco-planningThe Architecture and the Value of the WasteThe Architecture of WasteThe Problem of ValueArchitectural Stratagems and DeceitsMachinesMonumentsIntegrated ArchitectureTransforming and Containing the FormlessReferencesModeling a Low-Carbon City: Eco-city and Eco-planningIntroductionConcepts of Sustainable UrbanizationEconomic Policies and IndicatorsEmission InventoriesConsumer Household Energy DemandsIndustry, Commerce and Mining Energy DemandsTransport Energy DemandsAgricultural Energy DemandsParameters Required for ModelingFuture Directions and Planning for Urban GrowthConclusionsReferencesVI Characterization of Industrial GHG Emission Sources in Urban Planning Characterization of Industrial GHG Emission Sources in Urban PlanningIntroductionMain Contributors to Climate ChangeAlternative Urban EnergiesEfficient Built EnvironmentImportance of Efficient Urban PlanningGreen InfrastructureTransportation SectorEnergy Efficiency Through Adapting BehaviorReducing Travel DemandsNoise Pollution in the Transport SectorElectricity and Heat ProductionElectricity and Heat Generation DemandsScope of GHG EmissionsUpstream, and Downstream ActivitiesThe Value Chain FootprintScope 2 EmissionsCharacteristics of Sustainable Energy PlanningAlternative Energies for Electricity and Heat GenerationElectricity and Heat Transport LossesPower LossesEndeavors to Reduce Carbon FootprintReducing GHG Emissions Through Efficient Urban PlanningIntelligent and Smart LightingMaterials Used for Building Exterior Features and RoofingEnergy-Efficient Elevators for Multiple-Story BuildingsCertified Flooring (Carpeting, Tiling or Wood)Insulation of Walls, Floors, Foundations and Ventilation ShaftsHeating, Ventilation and Air-ConditioningAdditional Urban Planning Strategies and Techniques to Achieve Energy-Efficient, Smart and Sustainable BuildingsConclusionReferencesFrom Grey Towards Green. About the Urban Energy Fold at Symbiont CityIntroductionRelation with Nature-Based ProtocolsObjectivesOverview of the ActionMethodologyDiagnostic Phase—Urban Flows AssessmentImplementation Phase—Mixed-Use Ecosystem Environment—MEUExploitation Phase—Regulatory RevisionExpected ImpactsProtocolWP 1. Urban Symbiosis: A Cross-Consolidation of State of The ArtWP2. Case Study Collective DefinitionWP3. Symbiosis Assessment LabWP4. Pilot Study Modeling of MEUWP5. Environmental MonitoringWP6. Participation/Validation Process by Professional MarketWP 7. Optimization Plan and Dissemination of ResultsConclusionsReferencesDoes Urban Living Reduce Energy Use?IntroductionDomestic Energy Consumption: Natural Gas and ElectricityDomestic Use of Energy Over TimeMobility of PeopleSolar Panels on RoofsEnergetic Society and Local Energy InitiativesSolar EnergyWind EnergySummary and ConclusionReferencesThe Challenge of Urbanization in the Context of the New Urban Agenda: Towards a Sustainable Optimization of the Urban StandardsIntroductionThe Urbanization Process: Recent Evolution and State of ArtThe New Urban Agenda from Conference Habitat IIITowards a Sustainable Optimization of Urban Standards.DensityDiversity of UsesOpen Public SpaceTreatment of Surface Free of BuildingLimits and Origin of Urban Standards: The Citizen Needs as a Measure UnitConclusionsReferences
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