Whether the male is hotter than the female.

Further one investigates a comparison of the sexes, of male to female. And first, whether the male is hotter than the female.

1. And it seems not. For a hot complexion either generates nothing at all, or generates a female, according to medical authorities. Therefore, a female is produced from a hot complexion, and not a male. Therefore, she will be hotter than the male.

The Philosopher says the opposite.

To this one must reply that one can compare complexion in many ways: either in general, with respect to which it is said that the living is hotter than the non-living. Or it can be in terms of climate or region, and thus we say that those living in a hot region are hotter; or in terms of species, and in this way it is said that among animals the lion is a choleric animal and the human is a sanguine animal. Or it can be with respect to the individual, and in this way one person is said to be choleric while another is phlegmatic, etc. Or comparison can be made with respect to sex, and thus, generally speaking, a male is hotter than a female. And the reason for this is that a female is moister than a male. Excessive moisture blocks heat and extinguishes it. And this is why medical authorities say that the hottest female is colder than the coldest male.

1. On to the arguments. To the first argument one must reply that heat is twofold: either it is tempered or distempered. A hot or tempered complexion or a tempered heat always produces a male, whereas a distempered heat always produces a female. For if the heat is too weak, then the moisture of the menstrual blood can not be digested as much as a male's complexion requires. If, however, it is too excessive, then it causes the natural heat to escape and weakens the power, as is evident in summer. And as a result the menstrual blood leaves behind too much undigested moisture. And this is why if the heat departs from a tempered stateeither above or below iteither it generates nothing at all or it makes one effeminate, and this is the understanding of the physicians.

2. To the second argument one must reply that the loose texture of a woman's body is not a result of heat, but results from an abundance of moisture that is not digested, and in the opposite way the density [compactio] of a male's body is not the result of cold but results from the strength of the heat, because not only does cold coagulate but heat does so as well. This is apparent in the art of the brick-maker when fire compacts mud, etc.

Whether a man has to be larger than a female.

One inquires further whether a man has to be larger than a female.

1. And it seems not. Because where the nutritive power ends, there the augmentative begins. Therefore, where the nutritive power is stronger, there the augmentative power is fortified. But the nutritive power is stronger in a female than in a male, because the female nourishes both herself and the fetus, which the male does not do. And therefore, etc.

2. In addition, simplicity follows form, and quantity, matter. But the female has the role of matter in relation to the male; therefore, she naturally surpasses him in size.

The Philosopher says the opposite.

To this, one must reply that three things are required for a large body: namely, the strength of the power, the intensity of the spreading heat, and a great deal of moisture that can be spread about. The first two are found in a male, but the third is found in the female. And because two that are conjoined can effect more than one alone, in many cases males are larger than females. Nevertheless, the contrary is the case in birds of prey because they have a very strong heat. Therefore, in the males of this sort there is an elevated heat that consumes a great deal of moisture whereas in the females the heat is more tempered on account of the moisture that retards the heat, and this is why among these birds the females are larger than the males. And this is the reason why they fall into one article.

1. On to the arguments. To the first, one must reply that the reason the female nourishes both herself and the fetus is owing to the weakness of her digestion, because she cannot digest all the nutriment and convert it into her own substance because very often she is weakened by that superfluity which is later converted into milk and menstrual blood. Therefore, she converts less of the nutriment into her own substance than is converted in the male.

2. To the second argument one must reply that although the female has the role [ratio] of matter and is just like matter compared to the male who generates, nevertheless the female's menstrual blood is the matter for the male as well as the female.

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