The Diagnosis and Management of Substance Use Disorders in the Emergency Psychiatric Setting: A Primer

Noam Fast Contents

  • 12.1 Introduction....................................................................................................................201
  • 12.2 The Substance Use Epidemic and Treatment...................................................................201
  • 12.2.1 The Substance Use Epidemic...............................................................................201
  • 12.2.2 Substance Use: Treatment and Morbidity...........................................................202
  • 12.3 Anatomy of Addiction: Pathways in the Brain and Major Brain Structures....................202
  • 12.3.1 Neurotransmitters of Interest in Addiction Pathways..........................................203
  • 12.4 Psychological Craving: Reinforcement and Conditioning...............................................203
  • 12.5 Research: Data Sets........................................................................................................203
  • 12.6 The Motivational Matrix of Stages of Change.................................................................203
  • 12.7 Diagnosis: Criteria and Codes .......................................................................................204
  • 12.7.1 Diagnostic Criteria............................................................................................205
  • 12.8 Alcohol Disorders...........................................................................................................206
  • 12.8.1 Alcohol Disorder Assessment Tools .................................................................... 206
  • 12.8.1.1 AUDIT C...........................................................................................207
  • 12.8.1.2 AUDIT..............................................................................................207
  • 12.8.2 Alcohol Effect and Metabolism........................................................................207
  • 12.8.3 Risk and Prognostic Factors.............................................................................. 207
  • 12.8.4 Blood Alcohol Level Toxicity ........................................................................... 208
  • 12.8.5 Alcohol Withdrawal ........................................................................................ 208
  • 12.8.5.1 Withdrawal Treatment ........................................................................ 208
  • 12.8.6 Comorbidity....................................................................................................209
  • 12.8.7 Medication for Alcohol Use Disorder...............................................................209
  • 12.8.8 Wernicke Korsakoff Syndrome..........................................................................210
  • 12.8.8.1 Wernicke Korsakoff Syndrome Treatment...........................................210
  • 12.9 Sedative Hypnotic and Anxiolytic-Related Disorders.......................................................211
  • 12.9.1 Benzodiazepines ...............................................................................................211
  • 12.10 Cannabis-Related Disorders .........................................................................................211
  • 12.10.1 Cannabis: Intoxication and Withdrawal..........................................................212
  • 12.10.2 Cannabis: Social, Legal, and Research Issues....................................................212
  • 12.10.3 Synthetic Cannabis.........................................................................................212
  • 12.10.4 Cannabis and Brain Activity............................................................................213
  • 12.10.5 Cannabis Use Frequency Studies in Adolescents..............................................213
  • 12.11 Tobacco-Related Disorders............................................................................................213
  • 12.11.1 Tobacco: Usage and Mortality Rates................................................................213
  • 12.11.2 Nicotine Pharmacology...................................................................................214
  • 12.11.2.1 Nicotine Withdrawal......................................................................214
  • 12.11.3 Gold Standard Treatment................................................................................214
  • 12.11.4 Nicotine Treatment: Preferred Options............................................................215
  • 12.11.4.1 Bupropion......................................................................................215
  • 12.11.4.2 Varenicline.....................................................................................215
  • 12.11.4.3 Second Line Nicotine Treatment Agents.........................................215
  • 12.11.4.4 Nicotine Replacement Therapy......................................................216
  • 12.12 Opioid-Related Disorders.............................................................................................216
  • 12.12.1 Opioid Types...................................................................................................216
  • 12.12.2 Opioid Use and Emergency Department Visits...............................................216
  • 12.12.3 Opioids: A Historical Time Line.....................................................................217
  • 12.12.3.1 National Institutes of Health Consensus Panel on Opioid Addiction ...217
  • 12.12.4 Effects of Opioid Use......................................................................................217
  • 12.12.4.1 Withdrawal....................................................................................217
  • 12.12.5 Opioid Overdose.............................................................................................218
  • 12.12.5.1 Opioid Overdose Facts for First Responders ...................................218
  • 12.12.6 Management of Opioid Use Disorder..............................................................218
  • 12.12.6.1 Choices of Medication to Manage Opioid Use Disorders ...............219
  • 12.12.6.2 Methadone.....................................................................................219
  • 12.12.6.3 Naltrexone .....................................................................................219
  • 12.12.6.4 Buprenorphine ..............................................................................219
  • 12.13 Stimulant-Related Disorders ....................................................................................... 220
  • 12.13.1 Stimulants ...................................................................................................... 220
  • 12.13.1.1 Stimulant Intoxication and Withdrawal ........................................ 220
  • 12.13.2 Methamphetamine: Pharmacology and Effects ............................................... 220
  • 12.13.2.1 Methamphetamine: Addiction and Treatment ................................221
  • 12.13.2.2 Emergency Department Visits and Methamphetamine: 2007—2011 ..221
  • 12.13.2.3 The Man Who Ate His Methamphetamine: Case Presentation.......221
  • 12.13.2.3.1 Case Discussion ......................................................... 222
  • 12.13.3 Cocaine Use Disorder..................................................................................... 223
  • 12.13.3.1 Cocaine Formulations ................................................................... 223
  • 12.13.3.2 Methylenedioxymethamphetamine ............................................... 223
  • 12.14 Inhalant-Related Disorders...........................................................................................224
  • 12.14.1 Inhalant Types................................................................................................224
  • 12.15 Hallucinogen-Related Disorders...................................................................................224
  • 12.15.1 Common Hallucinogens................................................................................224
  • 12.15.1.1 Lysergic Acid Diethylamide...........................................................224
  • 12.15.1.2 Psilocybin......................................................................................225
  • 12.15.1.3 Dimethyltryptamine.....................................................................225
  • 12.15.1.4 Mescaline......................................................................................225
  • 12.15.1.5 Salvia Divinorum..........................................................................225
  • 12.15.2 Hallucinogen Neurology ................................................................................ 225
  • 12.15.3 Hallucinogen Intoxication.............................................................................. 225
  • 12.15.3.1 Hallucinogen-Persisting Perception Disorder.................................226
  • 12.16 Conclusion...................................................................................................................226

References ............................................................................................................................... 226

Resources .................................................................................................................................231

 
Source
< Prev   CONTENTS   Source   Next >