Notes

  • 1. Barack Obama, “Inaugural Address,” 2013, The White House, President Barack Obama, http://www.whitehouse.gov/ the-press-office/2013/01/21/inaugural-address-president- barack-obama.
  • 2. This chapter draws from, but goes beyond A Perfect Moral Storm, especially chapter 1.
  • 3. United Nations, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, United Nations, FCCC/INFORMAL/84 GE.05-62220 (E) 200705 (1992), 9.
  • 4. Eric Posner, “‘You Can Have Either Climate Justice or a Climate Treaty, Not Both,’” Slate (2013), November 19th.
  • 5. Attributed by the Indian delegation. Stern’s meaning is not entirely clear. In a subsequent press conference, he suggested that the United States wanted to block language that might preserve a “firewall” between developed and developing countries, but accepted that “equity” is enshrined in the UNFCCC and supported “fairness to all parties” See Johnathan Pickering, Steve Vanderheiden, and Seumas Miller “If Equity’s In, We’re Out.” Ethics & International Affairs 26, no. 4 (2012): 423-443, and United States Department of State. “United Nations Climate Change Conference in Durban Special Briefing: Todd Stern” (2011, December 13th).
  • 6. When writing their pieces, all three were at the University of Chicago Law School; after serving in the Obama administration, Sunstein is now at Harvard.
  • 7. Other instances of the perfect storm are likely to emerge over time. Already we see degenerate cases, such as ocean acidification, long-term nuclear waste, and the dismantling of post-Depression financial regulations.
  • 8. IPCC Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 2, emphasis added.
  • 9. Though wary of “values” because of potential ontological implications, I use it here for simplicity.
  • 10. Paradoxically, even if we learn that severe impacts are “in the cards” over the couple of decades, this may make matters even worse in the longer-term (e.g., if a threatened generation boosts emergency production and so emissions). See Stephen M. Gardiner, A Perfect Moral Storm (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), chap. 6.
  • 11. BBC 2009. “Copenhagen Reaction in Quotes” (December 19).
  • 12. Stephen M. Gardiner, “Ethics and Global Climate Change,” Ethics 114, no. 3 (2004): 555-600.
  • 13. Sebastian Junger, The Perfect Storm: A True Story of Men Against the Sea (New York: W.W. Norton, 1999).
  • 14. Garrett Hardin, “The Tragedy of the Commons,” American Association for the Advancement of Science 162 (1968): 1243-1248; cf. Stephen M. Gardiner, “The Real Tragedy of the Commons,” Philosophy & Public Affairs 30, no. 4 (2001): 387-416.
  • 15. Eric A. Posner and David A. Weisbach, Climate Change Justice (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010), 42.
  • 16. For a more sophisticated account, see Gardiner, A Perfect Moral Storm, chap. 4.
  • 17. This implies that, in the real world, commons problems do not, strictly speaking, satisfy all the conditions of the prisoner’s dilemma paradigm.
  • 18. Hardin, “The Tragedy of the Commons”, 1247.
  • 19. Dale Jamieson, “Ethics, Public Policy, and Global Warming,” Science, Technology & Human Values 17, no. 2 (1992): 139-153.
  • 20. I discuss some psychological aspects of political inertia and the role they play independently of scientific uncertainty in Gardiner, A Perfect Moral Storm, chap. 6.
  • 21. IPCC, Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report.
  • 22. Ibid.
  • 23. IPCC, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), 472-473.
  • 24. IPCC, Climate Change 2007: The Scientific Basis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 822, http://www.ipcc. ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wgl/en/spmsspm-direct- observations.html.
  • 25. “Tyranny of the contemporary” refers to a class of intergenerational problems that includes (for example) the pure intergenerational problem (PIP) and the generation-relative interests problem (GRIP). See below.
  • 26. Gardiner, A Perfect Moral Storm, chap. 5.
  • 27. I thank Dustin Schmidt for the acronym.
  • 28. James Hansen and Makiko Sato, “Greenhouse Gas Growth Rates,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101, no. 46 (2004): 16109-16114.
  • 29. I owe this suggestion to Henry Shue.
  • 30. Gardiner, A Perfect Moral Storm, chap. 10.
  • 31. Although it is unclear whether ultimately this should be thought of as a distinct storm, here I treat it as such to highlight some central ethical issues.
  • 32. E.g., Paul Taylor, Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011).
  • 33. Mark Sagoff, The Economy of the Earth (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1988).
  • 34. Bill McKibben, The End of Nature (New York: Random House, 1989); Allen Thompson, “Virtue of Responsibility for the Global Climate,” in Ethical Adaptation to Climate Change, eds. Allen Thompson and Jeremy Bendik-Keymer (Boston: MIT Press, 2012), 203-221.
  • 35. Stephen M. Gardiner, “Rawls and Climate Change: Does Rawlsian Political Philosophy Pass the Global Test?,” Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14, no. 2 (2011): 125-151.
  • 36. Gardiner, A Perfect Moral Storm, chap. 8.
  • 37. Robert J. Samuelson, “Lots of Gain And No Pain,” Newsweek, February 2005, 41.
  • 38. E.g., UK Royal Society and US Academy of Sciences, Climate Change: Evidence and Causes, 1 minute, National Academy of Sciences (National Academies Press, 2014). doi: 10.17226/18730.
  • 39. E.M. Conway and Naomi Oreskes, Merchants of Doubt (New York: Bloomsbury, 2010).
  • 40. Gardiner, A Perfect Moral Storm, Appendix 2.
  • 41. Stephen M. Gardiner, “The Global Warming Tragedy and the Dangerous Illusion of the Kyoto Protocol,” Ethics & International Affairs 18, no. 1 (2004): 23-39. doi:10.1111/j.1747- 7093.2004.tb00448.x.
 
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