Notes

  • 1. Jonathan Pickering, Steve Vanderheiden, and Seumas Miller, “If Equity’s In, We’re Out,” Ethics & International Affairs 26, no.4 (2012): 423-443.
  • 2. John Rawls, A Theory of Justice, Rev. Ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).
  • 3. Eric A. Posner and Cass R. Sunstein, “Pay China to Cut Emissions,” The Financial Times, August 5, 2007, http:// www.ft.com/intl/ cms/s/0/e67a8166-436d-11dc-a065- 0000779fd2ac.html#axzz39YR7J6pj.
  • 4. Eric A. Posner and David A. Weisbach, Climate Change Justice (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010), 86.
  • 5. Eric A. Posner and C.R. Sunstein, “Climate Change Justice,” Georgetown Law Journal 96, no. 5 (2008), 1569.
  • 6. Posner and Sunstein, “Pay China to Cut Emissions.”
  • 7. Peter Singer, “One Atmosphere,” in Climate Ethics: Essential Readings, ed. Stephen M. Gardiner, et al. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), 181-199.
  • 8. John Broome, Climate Matters (New York: Norton, 2012). See also Matthew Rendall, “Climate Change and the Threat of Disaster: The Moral Case for Taking out Insurance at Our Grandchildren’s Expense,” Political Studies 59, no. 4 (2011): 884-899.
  • 9. Broome, Climate Matters, 45-48.
  • 10. I do not assume that future people ought never to share in the costs of climate action. For instance, once a generation has been handed a significant burden through the misbehavior of its predecessors, some sharing (of that burden) might be appropriate. As the perfect storm rolls on to produce second- and third-generation climate ethics, there are further nuances.
  • 11. Rawls, A Theory of Justice: Revised Edition, 3-4.
  • 12. Singer, “One Atmosphere.”
  • 13. International Energy Agency, “World Energy Outlook,” Paris: International Energy Agency, 2009, https://www.iea. org/textbase/npsum/weo2009sum.pdf.
  • 14. T.A. Boden, G. Marland, and R.J. Andres, “Global, Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions,” Global, Regional, and National Annual Time Series, Oak Ridge, Tennesee: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, 2009, http://cdiac. ornl.gov/trends/emis/overview.html.
  • 15. World Bank, “CO2 Emissions: Metric Tons per Capita,” 2014, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC.
  • 16. International Monetary Fund, “World Economic Outlook Database, April 2014,” 2014, http://www.imf.org/external/ pubs/ft/weo/2014/01/weodata/weorept.aspx.
  • 17. World Bank, “Overview,” 2015, http://www.worldbank.org/ en/topic/poverty/overview.
  • 18. Singer, “One Atmosphere,” 193-194 in Gardiner, et al. 2010.
  • 19. For attempts to integrate such concerns, see Paul Baer, Tom Athanasiou, Sivan Kartha, et al. The Greenhouse Gas Development Rights Framework: The Right to Development in a Climate Constrained World (Berlin: Berlin Heinrich Boll Foundation, 2007); Shoibal Chakravarty, et al., “Sharing Global CO2 Emission Reductions among One Billion High Emitters,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106, no. 29 (2009): 11884-11888.
  • 20. Singer, “One Atmosphere,” 185.
  • 21. United States Energy Information Administration, “International Energy Statistics,” 2014, http://www.eia.gov/ cfapps/ipdbproject/IEDIndex3.cfm?tid=90&pid=44&aid=8.
  • 22. Posner and Weisbach, Climate Change Justice, 86.
  • 23. Thomas Schelling, “The Cost of Combating Global Warming: Facing the Tradeoffs,” Foreign Affairs 76, no. 6 (1997): 11.
  • 24. Stephen M. Gardiner, A Perfect Moral Storm (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), chap. 8.
  • 25. Schelling, “The Cost of Combating Global Warming: Facing the Tradeoffs,” 10.
  • 26. Posner and Weisbach, Climate Change Justice, 74.
  • 27. Ibid., 73.
  • 28. Darren Samuelsohn, “No ‘Pass’ for Developing Countries in Next Climate Treaty, Says U.S. Envoy,” The New York Times, December 9, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/gwire/2009/ 12/09/09greenwire-no-pass-for-developing-countries-in- next-clima-98557.html?pagewanted=all.
  • 29. Environmental Pollution Panel, Restoring the Quality of Our Environment, Report of the Environmental Pollution Panel, President’s Science Advisory Committee,Washington, DC: The White House, November 1965, 126, http://dge. stanford.edu/labs/caldeiralab/Caldeira%20downloads/ PSAC,%201965,%20Restoring%20the%20Quality%20 of%20Our%20Environment.pdf.
  • 30. Ibid., 1 (emphasis added).
  • 31. Ibid., 116 (emphasis added).
  • 32. Ibid., 119 (emphasis added).
  • 33. Ibid., 126-127.
  • 34. Ibid., 121 (insert added).
  • 35. President Lyndon B. Johnson, “Special Message to the Congress on Conservation and Restoration of Natural Beauty,” February 8, 1965, Santa Barbara, CA: The American Presidency Project, 2015, http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/ johnson/archives.hom/speeches.hom/650208.asp.
  • 36. Stephen M. Gardiner, “Justice and the Simple Threshold View of Past Emissions,” unpublished.
  • 37. E.M. Conway and Naomi Oreskes, Merchants of Doubt (New York: Bloomsbury, 2010).
  • 38. Posner and Weisbach, Climate Change Justice, 101.
  • 39. For example, see Simon Caney, “Justice and the Distribution of Greenhouse Gas Emissions,” Journal of Global Ethics 5, no. 2 (2009): 125-146; Simon Caney, “Just Emissions,” Philosophy & Public Affairs 40, no. 4 (2012): 255-300; Megan Blomfield, “Global Common Resources and the Just Distribution of Emission Shares,” Journal of Political Philosophy 21, no. 3 (2013): 283-304; Megan Blomfield, “Climate Change and the Moral Significance of Historical Injustice in Natural Resource Governance,” in The Ethics of Climate Governance, eds. Aaron Maltais and Catriona McKinnon (London: Rowman and Littlefield International, 2015).
  • 40. Simon Caney, “Just Emissions,” 271-291.
  • 41. Thomas Pogge, World Poverty and Human Rights: Cosmopolitan Responsibilities and Reforms (Cambridge: Polity, 2002); Charles Beitz, “Justice and International Relations,” Philosophy & Public Affairs 4, no. 4 (1975): 360-389.
  • 42. Stephen M. Gardiner, “Rawls and Climate Change: Does Rawlsian Political Philosophy Pass the Global Test?” in “Climate Change and Liberal Priorites,” eds. Gideon Calder and Catriona McKinnon, special issue, Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14, no. 2 (2011): 125-151. doi:10.1080/13698230.2011.529705.
  • 43. This section draws on Stephen M. Gardiner,

“Geoengineering: Ethical Questions for Deliberate Climate Manipulators,” in The Oxford Handbook on Environmental Ethics, eds. Stephen Gardiner and Allen Thompson (Oxford University Press: Oxford, in press).

  • 44. Gardiner, A Perfect Moral Storm, ch. 10.
  • 45. Stephen M. Gardiner, “A Call for a Global Constitutional Convention Focused on Future Generations,” Ethics and International Affairs 28, no. 3 (2014): 299-315.
 
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