Skills or Competencies
In our understanding, attributes, skills, and competencies have been interchangeably utilized across the literature; however, we may refer to competency as a skill with higher level in performance. In this book, the terms will be used interchangeably unless otherwise explicitly stated.
A synthesis of skills was performed taking into consideration two main dimensions:
- • DIM1—Skills that are required for current and future engineering graduates (extracted from engineering-related literature) and
- • DIM2—Generic graduate skills normally in a KBS or a iKBE context (extracted from general literature, not engineering related)
Dimension 1 focusing on engineering skills is coined with engineering skills, while Dimension 2 is coined with general skills. In this stage, the retrieved papers from the literature were reviewed and all the skills mentioned were extracted and tabulated under one of these two dimensions. The first list included skills from studies on future engineers, engineering graduates, global engineers attributes, and engineering accreditation systems; while the second list included skills from studies on employability, twenty-first-century, generic skills, and graduates’ attributes. For each dimension, a list of about 200 skills has been extracted from the literature.
A total of 37 references have been utilized in synthesizing the list in the engineering skills dimension, while a total of 34 references have been utilized in synthesizing the list in the general skills dimension.