The Triple-Helix Model of Stanford
The Triple-Helix framework was developed in mid-1990s and started to have recognition from early 2000 in Stanford in order to conceptualize the emerging roles of twenty-first-century universities beyond teaching and research into entrepreneurial and socio-economic impact driver. The model puts significant emphasis on the integrative role of universities together with government and industry in
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M. Abdulwahed and M.O. Hasna, Engineering and Technology Talent for Innovation and Knowledge-Based Economies,
Fig. 4.1 The Triple-Helix model from Stanford; source taken from (Davey et al. 2011)
order to share future socio-economic growth. Figure 4.1 shows a representation of the Triple-Helix model.
The Industry—University Cooperative Research Centre (I/UCRC)
The I/UCRC framework and model was originated three decades ago from an NSF programme initiated to foster academia-industry collaboration in research and development. The programme has been highly successful and is running to present day. The NSF (2016) describes the programme as: “I/UCRC enables industrially-relevant, pre-competitive research via a multi-member, sustained partnerships between industry, academe, and government. NSF supports the development and evolution of I/UCRCs, providing a financial and procedural framework for membership and operations in addition to best practices learned over decades of fostering public/private partnerships that provide significant value to the nation, industry and university faculty and students. I/UCRCs bring together their members (faculty, students, industry stakeholders) to perform cutting-edge pre-competitive fundamental research in science, engineering, technology area(s) of interest to industry and that can drive innovation and the U.S. economy. Members guide the direction of Center research through active involvement and mentoring.”
Throughout the decades of experience, NSF developed best practices and design models in establishing I/UCRC, and these are well detailed in Gray and Walters (1998, edited). NSF provides fine details, instruments, and tools related to I/UCRC, such as planning and initiating new centre, foundational principles for effective organizational structure, membership composition, planning and implementing the
Fig. 4.2 Organizational and operational structure of the intelligent maintenance center—an industry-university cooperative research centre; source taken from (IMS 2015) collaborative research programmes, communications and marketing, control and budgeting, knowledge and technology transfer, and finally centre-effective leadership. Figure 4.2 shows an example of one of the I/UCRC centres “Intelligent Maintenance Systems”.