Framework 3: The University—Business Cooperation (UBC)
The UBC was a result of the largest scale study on collaboration between academia and sectors of government, industry and employers, and societal system enterprises (referred to collectively as “Business”). The study covered all countries of the European Economic Area (EEA); this included 33 countries and 6000+ samples using a mixed methods approach associated with secondary reviews and comprehensive cases analysis from across Europe. UBC was defined as “all types of direct and indirect, personal and non-personal interactions between Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), and business for reciprocal and mutual benefits” (Davey et al. 2011). UBC results/outcomes were defined beyond the creation of patents, licence, and research contracts. In total, in eight major areas the UBC was defined to occur, and the areas are as follows:
- • R&D collaboration
- • Mobility of academics
- • Mobility of students
- • Commercialization of R&D results
- • Curriculum development and delivery
- • Lifelong learning
- • Entrepreneurship
- • Management.
The study resulted in a systemic strategic and implementation framework for enhancing UBC, and the framework is adopted later on in this document for CENG with slight modifications in terminologies for focusing on engineering and technology. The term “Business” in the UBC framework refers to all potential interactions and transactions (mutual way) between HEIs and industry, government, and social enterprises/stakeholders (Davey et al. 2011); the majority of UBC identified in the study took place within the engineering, science, and technology domains.
The UBC has its grass roots in the Triple-Helix model from Stanford (originated early in 2000) that describes the triple interaction between academia- industry/business-government as the foundational driver of socio-economic development.