On the Response for iKBE Development: Excellence in Technology’ Innovation, Entrepreneurship, & Engineering/Education (TIEE), and a Proposed Structure
Innovation, Design, and Technology Entrepreneurship for iKBE
Innovation, design, and commercialization/entrepreneurship have recently been fostered in novel engineering curricular and education models as vehicles to integrate foundational, scientific, technical, and socio-economic aspects associated with engineering and engineering learning, producing in a meaningful product-/ service-oriented manner. Innovation and design have been introduced in first-year engineering programmes and in multidisciplinary activities/courses/degrees in novel engineering curricular and education models; see, for instance, models at Purdue University. Singapore is the only innovation and knowledge-based economy (iKBE) that has programmed clear innovation and design schemes and is known for its higher education technical institutions focusing on innovation and design; recently, a state-of-the-art Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD) was established in partnership with MIT. The new university is the latest investment of the Singapore government that focuses on developing high-quality engineering education driven by multidisciplinary technological innovation and design. The Singapore government’s philosophy of focus on technology innovation and design has led to higher value outcomes and GDP growth compared to similar iKBE countries.
It has also led to higher growth in engineering publications despite relatively lower expenditure on R&D than similarly developed countries (Luo et al. 2011). Figure 5.1 shows Singapore’s growth in R&D expenditure as a percentage of GDP over 20 years; it is significantly lesser than other countries such as Finland or South Korea. Figure 5.2 shows GPS growth in Singapore, which is significantly higher than other comparative countries.
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M. Abdulwahed and M.O. Hasna, Engineering and Technology Talent for Innovation and Knowledge-Based Economies,
Fig. 5.1 Singapore R&D expenditure as percentage of GDP (Luo et al. 2011)
Fig. 5.2 Singapore GDP per capital (Luo et al. 2011)