Industries are the engine of iKBE transformation. For the case of Finland, industry was transformed from machinery and manufacturing into highly innovative ICT and services, and in the case of Singapore, industry was transformed from labour-intensive into technology-intensive, and lately into ICT, biomedical, and services.
Qatar industry is to a large extent dominated by large enterprises (in particular, in the oil and gas sectors), which is counter to the case of innovation and knowledge-based economies where small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) count for around 85-90 % of a country’s GDP. In our perspectives, Qatar’s large enterprises could play a crucial and driving role in widening the scale of SMEs in Qatar through leveraging their own capabilities in spinning off new start-ups. Qatar’s large enterprises possess a number of established assets that can significantly accelerate the implementations of new start-ups, and such assets include (but are not limited to) the following: emerging innovation and R&D divisions, existing technology and information systems, mature business processes, significant liquidity in terms of finance and funds, established HR/training/management systems, production lines, networks, and overseas presence.
Academia is the base member of the technology innovation and entrepreneurship ecosystem. Innovation-based technical and engineering academic entities can provide an incubation of early prototypes and proof concepts. Overall, R&D is actively running in engineering academic institutions, attributed mainly to the establishment of research funds and the various grant programmes they manage every year. Academia is normally well networked locally and internationally. Academia overall develops and manages educational programmes (B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D.) as well as training programmes, and graduates next generation of technology and engineering talent.