Closed-Loop Processing System
The closed-loop system identifies the procedure by which upcoming investigations and implantations emerging from this study will take place. The procedure is composed of three main components, such as shown in Fig. 6.4, (1)—inputs, (2)— process, and (3)—output.
Inputs: define the entrants needed for the procedure. Inputs may be, but not limited to, the following elements: the current level of skills attributes, current frameworks and methodologies for enhancing skills, opportunities for grand challenges, contextual differences in terms of implication of engineering in practice, and finally the potential drivers that lead competence development.
- • Frameworks and Methodologies: these are the utilized methodologies for investigation in other studies, e.g. mixed-methods approach and scenario-based approach;
- • Grand Challenges: these are the grand challenges of the country by which engineering and technology can play a major role to meet these challenges;
- • Local and Global Context: these inputs take into consideration global and local contextual needs and differences; and
- • Change Drivers: these are the drivers for change in graduate engineers’ attributes, e.g. governmental plans and policies, regional and global competition, transformative industry, and development plans.
Process: the information obtained has to be processed in a structured manner, first by scrutinizing data and streamlining them and then by classifying them into various forms and schema as necessary. The data have to be then analysed to see
Fig. 6.4 Closed-loop processing system whether they fit the current and future observations and requirements where views from literature can be of great help. The final step in the processing is the data consolidation in order to develop meaningful resolutions in terms of skills, policies, road maps, and the future paradigm (or sketch of the future). The future paradigm can be developed through the trending method, based on the current processes, or through the back-casting method based on the vision of the future at a particular period.
Outputs define the outcomes extranets of the investigation. The outputs of the processes, as mentioned in the figure, would be a reasonable list of skills, policies for various stakeholders, and the anticipated vision.
- • Skills and Attributes: focus on competencies needed for engineers to meet the current and future evolving contextual needs;
- • Recommendations: these are a set of recommendations for adaptation by main stakeholders, e.g. curricular change and governmental policies;
- • Sketch of the Future: this could be a detailed comprehensive scenario of engineering state and needed industrial transformation for iKBE in a future state (let us say 2030).
The framework is also dynamic in terms of the whole content, in the sense that inputs and processes could be changed with the passage of time. Figure 6.5 shows
Fig. 6.5 The whole systemic framework with its four subsystems the whole systemic framework with its four subsystems combined. In the next section, the main findings of the investigation are reported, discussed, and then mapped to the developed systemic framework.
The methodological approach of constructing the qualitative interview protocols and the quantitative surveys has been detailed. The validity and reliability of the surveys were high as demonstrated by Cronbach’s alpha and conclusion validity approaches. Targeted groups of the investigation included stakeholders from industry (managers, trainers, HR, and practicing engineers) and stakeholders from academia (faculty members and senior level students). Analysis of the collected data is provided in the next chapter. The chapter also provided a systemic framework for investigation of needed talent in a national context. The systemic framework is applicable in temporal, situational, and procedural context. The framework will be utilized in the next chapter to synthesize the major findings of the project and develop an implementation road map.