- 1. Of 46 English-language books on comics in 2014 in the Bonn Online- Bibliography, almost a third (13) are dedicated solely to superheroes, six focus on social issues (such as representation of minorities), and five are dedicated to only one creator.
- 2. For an overview of the various functions of publishers, see Greco (2013, 5-6) or Clark and Phillips (2014, 1-2).
- 3. Of course, graphic narratives can sometimes do without established publishers; there have been cases of self-publishing by artists themselves—think, for instance, of the amateur market, which is really impressive in Japan (Noppe 2014)—or cases of crowdfunded publishing. Moreover, for a lot of new creators, self-publishing is often the only way to get their work distributed (e.g. Ren 2014).
- 4. Notable exceptions are the PhD dissertations of Rogers (1997) and de Vries (2012) and the book on manga publishing in the USA by Brienza (2016).
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Brienza, Casey. 2016. Manga in America: Transnational Book Publishing and the Domestication of Japanese Comics. New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
Bruns, Axel. 2003. Gatewatching, not Gatekeeping: Collaborative Online News. Media International Australia Incorporating Culture and Policy: Quarterly Journal of Media Research and R.esources 107: 31-44.
Clark, Giles, and Angus Phillips. 2014. Inside Book Publishing. New York: Routledge.
Coser, Lewis A. 1975. Publishers as Gatekeepers of Ideas. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 421: 14-22.
Coser, Lewis A., Charles Kadushin, and Walter W. Powell. 1982. The Culture and Commerce of Publishing. New York: Basic Books.
Deluliis, David. 2013. Culturally Gatekeeping the Black Comic Strip. In Black Comics: Politics ofRace and R.epresentation, eds. Sheena C. Howard and Ronald L. Jackson II, 239-250. New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
de Vries, Rudi. 2012. Comics and Co-evolutions. A Study of the Dynamics in the Niche of Comics Publishers in the Low Countries. PhD diss., University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
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Greco, Albert N. 2013. The Book Publishing Industry. New York: Routledge.
Gunderson, Jessica. 2015. Self-Publishing and E-Books in the Book Industry. In 18th Annual Steven Galovich Memorial Student Symposium, July 4, Lake Forest, IL. Accessed July 10, 2015. http://publications.lakeforest.edu/gss/gss2015/ program/35/
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Lefevre, Pascal. 1986. De selekterende stripuitgevers. Een onderzoek naar de gatekeeping bij de grote stripuitgeverijen Lombard en Dupuis. M.A. diss., Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
-. 2000. The Importance of Being ‘Published’. A Comparative Study of
Different Comics Formats. In Comics and Culture, eds. Anne Magnussen and Hans-Christian Christiansen, 91-105. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum at the University of Copenhagen.
-. 2013. Narration in the Flemish Dual Publication System. The Crossover
Genre ‘Humoristic Adventure. In From Comic Strips to Graphic Novels: Contributions to the Theory and History of Graphic Narrative, eds. Daniel Stein and Jan-Noel Thon, 255-269. Berlin: De Gruyter.
-. 2015. Gatekeeping at Two Main Belgian Comics Publishers, Dupuis and
Lombard, at a Time of Transition (in the 1980s). Studies in Comics 6(1): 109-119.
Lefevre, Pascal, and Morgan Di Salvia. 2011. A Creative Culture Where It’s Hard to Make a Living. The Socio-economic Situation of Comics Authors and Illustrators in Belgium. European Comic Art 4(1): 59-80.
Martens, Thierry. 1988. Le Journal de Spirou. 1938-1988. Cinquante Ans d’histoire(s). Fleurus: Dupuis.
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Noppe, Nele. 2014. The Cultural Economy of Fanwork in Japan: Dojinshi Exchange as a Hybrid Economy of Open Source Cultural Goods. PhD diss., Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
Ren, Xiang. 2014. Creative Users, Social Networking, and New Models of Publishing. Cultural Science 7(1): 58-67.
Rogers, Mark Christiancy. 1997. Beyond Bang! Pow! Zap!: Genre and the Evolution of the American Comic Book Industry. PhD diss., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
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Singer, Jane B. 2014. User-generated Visibility: Secondary Gatekeeping in a Shared Media Space. New Media and Society 16(1): 55-73.
Tandoc, Edson C. 2014. Journalism is twerking? How web analytics is changing the process of gatekeeping. New Media & Society 16(4): 559-575.