• 1. Of 46 English-language books on comics in 2014 in the Bonn Online- Bibliography, almost a third (13) are dedicated solely to superheroes, six focus on social issues (such as representation of minorities), and five are dedicated to only one creator.
  • 2. For an overview of the various functions of publishers, see Greco (2013, 5-6) or Clark and Phillips (2014, 1-2).
  • 3. Of course, graphic narratives can sometimes do without established publishers; there have been cases of self-publishing by artists themselves—think, for instance, of the amateur market, which is really impressive in Japan (Noppe 2014)—or cases of crowdfunded publishing. Moreover, for a lot of new creators, self-publishing is often the only way to get their work distributed (e.g. Ren 2014).
  • 4. Notable exceptions are the PhD dissertations of Rogers (1997) and de Vries (2012) and the book on manga publishing in the USA by Brienza (2016).


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Brienza, Casey. 2016. Manga in America: Transnational Book Publishing and the Domestication of Japanese Comics. New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Bruns, Axel. 2003. Gatewatching, not Gatekeeping: Collaborative Online News. Media International Australia Incorporating Culture and Policy: Quarterly Journal of Media Research and R.esources 107: 31-44.

Clark, Giles, and Angus Phillips. 2014. Inside Book Publishing. New York: Routledge.

Coser, Lewis A. 1975. Publishers as Gatekeepers of Ideas. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 421: 14-22.

Coser, Lewis A., Charles Kadushin, and Walter W. Powell. 1982. The Culture and Commerce of Publishing. New York: Basic Books.

Deluliis, David. 2013. Culturally Gatekeeping the Black Comic Strip. In Black Comics: Politics ofRace and R.epresentation, eds. Sheena C. Howard and Ronald L. Jackson II, 239-250. New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

de Vries, Rudi. 2012. Comics and Co-evolutions. A Study of the Dynamics in the Niche of Comics Publishers in the Low Countries. PhD diss., University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Fantagraphics. 2015. Frequently Asked Questions. Accessed July 19, 2015.

Greco, Albert N. 2013. The Book Publishing Industry. New York: Routledge.

Gunderson, Jessica. 2015. Self-Publishing and E-Books in the Book Industry. In 18th Annual Steven Galovich Memorial Student Symposium, July 4, Lake Forest, IL. Accessed July 10, 2015. program/35/

Hesmondhalgh, David. 2009. The Cultural Industries. London: Sage.

Jenkins, Henry. 2006. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York: NYU Press.

Kinsella, Sharon. 2000. Adult Manga: Culture and Power in Contemporary Japanese Society. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Lefevre, Pascal. 1986. De selekterende stripuitgevers. Een onderzoek naar de gatekeeping bij de grote stripuitgeverijen Lombard en Dupuis. M.A. diss., Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

-. 2000. The Importance of Being ‘Published’. A Comparative Study of

Different Comics Formats. In Comics and Culture, eds. Anne Magnussen and Hans-Christian Christiansen, 91-105. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum at the University of Copenhagen.

-. 2013. Narration in the Flemish Dual Publication System. The Crossover

Genre ‘Humoristic Adventure. In From Comic Strips to Graphic Novels: Contributions to the Theory and History of Graphic Narrative, eds. Daniel Stein and Jan-Noel Thon, 255-269. Berlin: De Gruyter.

-. 2015. Gatekeeping at Two Main Belgian Comics Publishers, Dupuis and

Lombard, at a Time of Transition (in the 1980s). Studies in Comics 6(1): 109-119.

Lefevre, Pascal, and Morgan Di Salvia. 2011. A Creative Culture Where It’s Hard to Make a Living. The Socio-economic Situation of Comics Authors and Illustrators in Belgium. European Comic Art 4(1): 59-80.

Martens, Thierry. 1988. Le Journal de Spirou. 1938-1988. Cinquante Ans d’histoire(s). Fleurus: Dupuis.

Matsui, Takeshi. 2009. The Diffusion of Foreign Cultural Products: The Case Analysis of Japanese Comics (Manga) Market in the US. Working Paper #37. Princeton University, Center for Arts and Cultural Studies.

Noppe, Nele. 2014. The Cultural Economy of Fanwork in Japan: Dojinshi Exchange as a Hybrid Economy of Open Source Cultural Goods. PhD diss., Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Ren, Xiang. 2014. Creative Users, Social Networking, and New Models of Publishing. Cultural Science 7(1): 58-67.

Rogers, Mark Christiancy. 1997. Beyond Bang! Pow! Zap!: Genre and the Evolution of the American Comic Book Industry. PhD diss., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Shoemaker, Pamela J., and Tim P. Vos. 2009. Gatekeeping Theory. New York: Routledge.

Singer, Jane B. 2014. User-generated Visibility: Secondary Gatekeeping in a Shared Media Space. New Media and Society 16(1): 55-73.

Tandoc, Edson C. 2014. Journalism is twerking? How web analytics is changing the process of gatekeeping. New Media & Society 16(4): 559-575.

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