• 1. I firmly believe that even a limited amount of theoretical background can and does help practitioners such as myself (c.f. Boase-Beier 2006).
  • 2. While a more fine-grained definition is possible, subcategories cannot be developed further here due to the scope of this chapter. Further study is needed.
  • 3. In the comic, Granbrakko is a spoof of the Ranger Strider/Aragorn from The Lord of the Rings, who is depicted here as being a man of color; this is due to the character being based on Brakko, a regular in the main series.
  • 4. PKNA is a series about an anthropomorphic duck whose vigilante alter-ego becomes a superhero in order to fight against alien parasites from outer space.


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Boase-Beier, Jean. 2006. Stylistic Approaches to Translation. Manchester, UK: St. Jerome.

Chiaro, Delia, ed. 2010. Translation, Humor and The Media. New York: Continuum. Epstein, B.J. 2012. Translating Expressive Language in Children’s Literature. New York: Peter Lang.

Hevia, Mangiron Carme. 2010. The Importance of Not Being Earnest: Translating Humour in Videogames. In Translation, Humour and The Media, ed. Delia Chiaro, 89-107. New York: Continuum.

Kaindl, Klaus. 2004. Multimodality in the Translation of Comics. In Perspectives on Multimodality, eds. Eija Ventola, Cassily Charles, and Martin Kaltenbacher, 173-192. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Krikmann, Arvo. 2005. Contemporary Linguistic Theories of Humour. Folklore 33: 27-58.

Ortolani, Leo. 2003. Rat-Man (Anthology Collecting Various Issues). Roma: Gruppo Editoriale L’Espresso.

Vandaele, Jeroen. 2002. (Re-)Constructing Humor: Meanings and Means. The Translator 8(2): 149-172.

Various authors. 2001. PKNA: I Viaggiatori del Tempo (Anthology Collecting Issues 0, 0/1, 0/2, 14, 22). Segrate: Supermiti Mondadori.

Zanettin, Federico, ed. 2008. Comics in Translation. Manchester: St Jerome Publications.

-. 2010. Humor in Translated Cartoons and Comics. In Translation,

Humour and The Media, ed. Delia Chiaro, 34-52. New York: Continuum.

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