Conclusion

Although I introduced the concept of subcultural clusters to better explicate the phenomenon of multiple attachments, interrelations, and transitions among various fan cultures and subcultures (c.f. Muggleton 2000; Hills 2002), the patterns of interaction and interconnectedness among subcultural producers within the same subcultural cluster can also help reappraise the problem of boundary setting in relation to Becker and Bourdieu’s frameworks of art world/field. Relations of work and networks of cooperation and interests can indeed map out discernible art worlds/ fields of interaction, and not just core artistic activities but also so-called support activities such as mediation and dissemination. And while the boundaries of these art worlds/fields are characterized by a high level of porousness, as evidenced by the entry of external business interests into the anime and manga fan-focused market in Hungary, the high number of actors coming from within the fandom or from related cultures seems to point toward the existence of a more or less well-defined art world/field, with identifiable interrelated sub-worlds/subfields.

 
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