Supply Chain Complexity and Economically Motivated Adulteration

K. Everstine

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States

Globalization of our food supply increases many types of risk, not the least of which is the risk of economically motivated adulteration (EMA) or food fraud (the intentional adulteration or misrepresentation of food for economic gain). Increasing complexity reduces the ability of both regulators and industry to effectively oversee food supply chains. A brief description of each of the main themes included in this chapter is given here.

  • Regulatory and supply chain control challenges and globalization: this section will provide a brief background and examples of some of the challenges in overseeing increasingly globalized food supply chains.
  • Economically motivated adulteration and food fraud: definitions and scope: this section will define EMA and food fraud, discuss what is currently known about the scope of the problem given the available data, and describe various methods of perpetrating EMA.
  • Drivers of EMA opportunity and incentive: this section will discuss the factors that drive the opportunity for EMA and the incentive behind EMA.
  • Assessing the vulnerability of foods and ingredients to EMA: EMA risk cannot be assessed and mitigated using traditional food safety control frameworks. This section will present the general framework for evaluating EMA vulnerability in foods and ingredients, and briefly discuss one guidance document created for use by industry in conducting food fraud vulnerability assessments.
  • Future trends: legislation and EMA mitigation efforts: the development of risk mitigation methods for industry and government, as well as new regulations for EMA control, will continue to evolve over the coming years around the world. This section will focus on recent developments in US-based legislation and one UK government-commissioned report to highlight future trends.

Food Protection and Security. DOI:

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