Table of Contents:

Crisis Phases

The CDC developed a five-stage model to help identify specific communication activities associated with a public health emergency. These include: (1) precrisis, (2) initial event, (3) maintenance, (4) resolution, and (5) evaluation (Reynolds and Seeger, 2012). Crisis preparation and planning can take advantage of these stages to indicate what will need to happen during each stage.


Planning and preparation can help an organization be ready once a crisis emerges. There are certain challenges that are unique to the food industry that should be anticipated. For example, there should be a process in place to determine the source of a contamination. Organizations should anticipate predictable crises and form appropriate responses in advance. The precrisis phase affords organizations time to plan for common crisis events, develop chains of command, assign tasks, select spokespersons, train staff, form alliances with partner organizations, draft messages, and collect resources.

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