Strategies in Sustainability
Acha-Anyi Paul Nkemngu (Chapter 8) emphasizes the diversity of tourist attractions through a unique case study from South Africa. His findings support the creation of unique co-branding partnerships as critical to the sustainability of the destination. The results of his study also suggest the importance of complementary activities and sites to enhance and strengthen the rural to urban continuum of a destination. For destinations highlighted in this chapter, there is growing evidence of the value of an urban-rural tourism mix which strengthens the tourism product and potentially the economic impact.
Chantell LaPan (Chapter 9) introduces the importance of domestic tourism and growth in developing countries. Chantell highlights the lack of government planning associated with this increase, as well as the need for understanding the impacts related to domestic versus international tourism. Utilizing a case from Guatemala, she uncovers distinctions within local tourism and residents, which are influenced by cultural divisions and history. The results of this chapter suggest complexities often taken for granted in marketing materials, cultural distinctions, tourism ownership (local versus international), and cultural exploitation and social justice issues. Through the literature and this case study, Chantell can identify potential solutions, which harken back to principles of sustainability challenges about history, cultural nuances and infrastructure.
John Delconte (Chapter 10) communicates the relationships between the power of art to enhance economical and sustainable community development in urban-rural fringe America. His study contributes to understanding the relationship of the arts to poverty. The results of his study suggest that the arts can play a role in distressed communities, organizationally and in the future. This important chapter adds to the discourse surrounding cultural revitalization and the complex links to sustainable development. As John eloquently describes, ‘a participatory artistic culture is intertwined with the social fabric of communities ... having an active arts scene with opportunities for participation and other means of expressing local culture nurtures a blossoming of unique physical, social and economic characteristics that feed into one another to create healthy communities in both urban and rural places’.
Dominic Lapointe (Chapter 11) moves us into the realm of theme parks, often located on the fringe of urban and rural spaces. Through a case study of a theme park in Quebec, Canada, Dominic relays an interesting narrative from three perspectives: urban planning versus rural space, separation versus dependence and imagery versus local territorial descriptions. Dominic summarizes that while theme parks create an attraction, with flows of visitors, they do not necessarily create a destination - with sustainability challenges such as infrastructure, services and a disconnect between the expectations of two different environments (i.e. high density, built environment versus a pastoral rural landscape). He also emphasizes the need for more research into the contextual interactions of theme parks with host communities.
Alexis Solano and Christopher Proctor (Chapter 12) explore a model from San Francisco, Napa Valley, which mixes the urban with the rural through wine tourism, and look at the applicability of this model to another region in the state of Pennsylvania. They explore several facets of comparison, the various relationships built between these two areas and tourism demand to see if they apply to the Philadelphia area and surrounding communities. This case presents a critical aspect of understanding the potential for sustainable tourism development by exploring key components of successful tourism partnerships and destination linkages.
Leah Greden Mathews (Chapter 13) examines a case from western North Carolina, presenting a ‘snapshot of a dynamic system’ about farm and food tourism and the potential linkages between urban and rural areas. She reiterates the importance of multivariate connections for both product and flows of people. This case emphasizes the unique complexities of sustainable destinations. The chapter delves into the success intricacies of the rural-urban nexus or continuum. It also demonstrates the importance of multi-diverse stakeholder groups representing diverse interests and the importance of creating a sense of place or, as they identified, staying true to their roots - while being innovative and dynamic, capitalizing on trends. From a sustainability perspective, she also demonstrates: farm and food tourism’s resiliency during economic swings, and increased relevance to various seasons throughout the year, minimizing fluctuations; landscape, cultural and environmental benefits (with small and medium farms); and the spillover impacts of aesthetic qualities and protected landscapes.
Kynda R. Curtis and Roslynn Brain (Chapter 14) explore the rural- urban linkage through a farm-chef-fork lens in Utah. From a sustainability perspective, they highlight the impact of local food sourcing in generating economic development, fostering public health outcomes, and the promotion of environmental sustainability through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and other benefits. They highlight the benefits of farm to restaurant programmes around the United States and introduce the aims of the Utah programme. Kynda and Roslynn relay the significant positive impact of this programme, highlighting increased rural-urban linkages, improved tourist experiences and the spin-off effect, which has promoted increases in locally sourced foods over the past five years.
Karla Boluk (Chapter 15) presents a section focused on some of the practices and initiatives incorporating sustainable value into an international hotel chain, Fairmont Hotels & Resorts (FHR). She explores research related to the integrated rural tourism systems approach and the interaction of a corporate sustainability and community impact. The case study presented demonstrates the potential value of corporate partnerships, and the unique balance between corporate structures and local communities where they operate to achieve sustainability goals. It also explains how corporate sustainability objectives integrate into product and service enhancements at local levels.
International Labour Organization (ILO) (2013) Toolkit on Poverty Reduction through Tourism, 2nd edn. International Labour Office, Geneva, Switzerland.
International Labour Organization (ILO) (n.d.) Reducing Poverty through Tourism (Questions & Answers) (n.d.) Available at: http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/ newsroom/features/WCMS_154943/lang--en/index.htm (accessed 17 July 2016).
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (2011) Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction. Available at: http:// web.unep.org/greeneconomy/sites/unep.org.greeneconomy/files/field/image/green_ economyreport_final_dec2011.pdf (accessed 17 July 2016).
United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) (n.d.) Sustainable Tourism. Available at: http://sdt.unwto.org/content/about-us-5 (accessed 17 July 2016).
Walker, B. and Salt, D. (2012) Resilience Thinking: Sustaining Ecosystems and People in a Changing World. Island Press, Washington, DC.