This section presents the results, organized into three stages: the first section presents descriptive statistics over the total publications identified by the systematic review; the second part shows academic contributions resulting after the application of including and excluding criteria and a division of the resulting papers into four topic areas (rural, urban, ruralurban, other) and two subcategories (related or not related to tourism) according to the topic, research object, study area and field of research; finally, the main topics are presented according to the results. Over 934 results were initially obtained, covering the period from 1973 to 2016.

Descriptive statistics

Some descriptive statistics were performed on the total quantity of papers, in order to evaluate the evolution of the academic discussion and introduce the main issues related to urban-rural and tourism. Scopus indicates that the number of papers from 2006 to 2016 accounts for over 64% of the total publications identified using the research parameters. As per Fig. 1.2, we can see that the topic has gained growing attention, with remarkable peaks in the years 2012 and 2014, with 8.3% and 9.74% of the total papers published in those years, respectively.

A large majority of the literature identified by the systematic review originally comes from the USA and the UK (21.6% of the total), followed by Chinese contributions (8%). Australia, Spain, France, Canada and Japan follow on the list.

In addition, statistics were performed on the document types. Journal articles account for more than 61%, followed by conference papers and reviews as presented in Fig. 1.3.

According to the Scopus results, Annals of Tourism Research is the tourism journal with the majority of papers published on rural-urban- tourism issues (20 papers), followed by Tourism Management (9). Tourism Geographies (8), Current Issues in Tourism (5), Journal of Sustainable Tourism (5) and Journal of Travel Research (5) follow next in the list of the

Papers divided over years. (Adapted from

Fig. 1.2. Papers divided over years. (Adapted from: Scopus database.)

Document type. (Adapted from

Fig. 1.3. Document type. (Adapted from: Scopus database.)

journals in tourism that have published at least five works on urban-rural and tourism related topics.

A final analysis was performed of the subject area (Fig. 1.4) and Scopus indicates that a large majority of papers belong to the social sciences (44.8%) and environmental studies (31.7%), covering 76.5% of the total studies published. Earth and planet studies, business and management follow next on the list.

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