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A short course of lectures
«The handy philosophy answer book»

How did John Searle disagree with Alan Mathison Turing?What was Rousseau's life like?Who was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon?What was Scottish Common Sense Philosophy?Who was the Marquis de Sade?Other trends in new philosophyWhat was Philippa Foot's contribution to virtue ethics?How does Plato define a "just city" in his Republic?What historical developments helped to start Renaissance humanism?What was W.V.O. Quine's view of existence?What's the difference between the practice of philosophy and the subject of philosophy?Did philosophy lead to the other sciences all at once?What did the religious and humanist existentialists contribute?What are the two types of ideas according to George Berkeley?How did Pyrrhonic skepticism get its name?What was Enlightenment philosophy?What was Charles Peirce's pragmaticism?Did women object to this negative view of them in the seventeenth century?What was Hobbes' theory of government in Leviathan?What was distinctive about Elizabeth Elstob?Who was Jeremy Bentham?What was William James' pragmatic epistemology?What were Leibniz's views on embryology?What were Alcmaeon's innovations in medicine?What were W.V.O. Quine's most influential ideas?What was Vico's cyclical idea of history?What are the highlights of Alfred North Whitehead's career?How did Augustine support the theology of the Church with philosophy?NEW PHILOSOPHYWhat was Plato's view of love?Who was Aspasia of Miletus?How was G.E. Moore a realist?Who was W.V.O. Quine?What was William James' pragmatic ethics?What is Confucianism?Was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon a friend of Karl Marx?What was William Whewell's fundamental antithesis of knowledge?Who was Pierre Gassendi?What was the reaction to the Meditations?Who was Princess Elizabeth?What is the other minds problem in philosophy?What is analytic ethics?Where does the soul fit into Plotinus' system of Platonic entities?Who was John Wisdom?INTUITIONISM Was Isaac Newton rewarded for his scientific discoveries?What are some details of David Hume's life and career?Josiah Royce Epistemology and metaphysics after logical positivismWhat is the difference between a moral system and a moral theory?Who was Alexius Meinong?How do the Churchlands account for perceptions of meaning?What did George Berkeley mean when he said, "To be is to be perceived"?Who was Voltaire?How was Plotinus' system of thought expressed in the Enneads?How did the Islamic religion begin?What is Marxism?Who were the philosophes?ANCIENT PHILOSOPHYWhat was Arthur Schopenhauer's influence?What is a meme?How did Sir Thomas More become a martyr?What was Rosicrucianism?What have been the main themes in philosophical feminism?What were the emotional conditions in Soren Kierkegaard's life?Who is Hélène Cixous?What are some of the major philosophical arguments made in Meditations?What was so revolutionary about the scientific revolution?How did feminist epistemology develop?Afro-centrism and African Philosophy How did Nicolaus Copernicus change the world?What are some important facts about Martin Heidegger's life?Who was Herbert Spencer?How did race become important in feminist philosophy?JOHN STUART MILLWho was Richard Rorty?What is moral theory?Were Pyrrhonic skeptics anxious about the impossibility of knowledge?Why was John Locke important?What is feminism and feminist philosophy?What was Alfred North Whitehead's process philosophy?What were Averroes most noteworthy ideas?Buddhism and ConfucianismWhat is Native American philosophy?Pragmatism and process philosophyWhat did Anne Conway's physical pain have to do with her philosophy and religion?Who was Karl Marx?How is environmental ethics a secular matter?How was George Berkeley's occasionalism distinctive?Islam's InfluenceIMMANUEL KANT What was Empedocles' idea about the four elementsWhat is Epicureanism?What is the Socratic method?How is Confucianism relevant to contemporary Western philosophy?What is logical positivism?Who was Alfred Tarski?How did ideas about life change when it came to the philosophy of science?What are the main Pre-Socratic texts?What are some of John Stuart Mill's influential publications?What was unusual about Hume's theory of the emotions?THE BASICSWhat did Proclus contribute to Neoplatonism?AMERICAN PHILOSOPHYWhy did Heraclitus disagree with Pythagoras about the essence of life?What ideals for scientists did the early Royal Society promote?Who was William of Ockam?What is process philosophy?What was the Native American philosophical tradition?What were Burke's main ideas in political theory?Who was Mary Wollstonecraft?What is philosophy of technology?StructuralistsHow was Vico's thought opposed to the Enlightenment?What was Jean-Paul Sartre's version of existentialism?What was Hilary Putnam's neo-pragmatism?What was the Frankfurt School?What is Latin American philosophy?What were some of John Stuart Mill's achievements?What was G.E. Moore's common sense philosophy?Why was Bernardo Telesio called "the first of the moderns" by Francis Bacon?Edmund Husserl What did Friedrich Nietzsche mean by power?AnarchismFor what is Heraclitus still famous?What are some interesting facts about William James' life?Sigmund FreudWhat is eliminative materialism?How can there be "new" philosophy?What are some details of Sigmund Freud's life that led him to his work?When discussing religious belief, which did Montaigne consider to be more important: reason or faith?What were Grotius' influential ideas about natural law?What were John Stuart Mill's views on marriage?Who was Leo Strauss?What was Pico Della Mirandola known for?Who was Paul Feyerabend?What is "the they"?How did William Whewell think consilience, coherence, and predictions should be applied to test theories?Why did John Stuart Mill distrust majority rule?What was The Dial?WILLIAM WHEWELLWhat is Julia Kristeva's idea of the abject and the nature of women?Franz Brentano GEORGE BERKELEYWhat did Aristotle think about government and politics?What topics are addressed in Plato's middle works?John LockeSociology and Philosophy What is Roman stoicism?What is ethical egoism?What did William Whewell mean by the sensationalistic school?How did non-Euclidian geometry affect other fields?Can the problem of intersectionality be solved?What was Auguste Comte's positivism?Who was Gotthold Lessing?What is the difference between critical theory and structuralism?How did the facts of Wollstonecraft's life obscure her work?What world facts inform postmodernism?PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL THEORYWhat was Sigmund Freud's interpretation of hysteria?Who was Karl Popper?Did the Eastern philosophers interact much with the St. Louis Hegelians?Who was Robert Boyle?Other Important Medieval PhilosophersWhy did philosophers become interested in mathematics, geometry, and logic, during the nineteenth century?What was Robert Nozick's response to John Rawls?What was al-Kindi's main contribution to philosophy?What were Leo Strauss' main politically relevant ideas?What happens after absolute knowledge is attained?What is the big problem with Hume's reduction of the self to perceptions?Who was Frederick Douglass?Hilary Putman What did Friedrich Nietzsche mean by "the birth of tragedy?"How did William James express his own will to believe?What was the purpose of Descartes' Meditations?What is the philosophical issue regarding biological race?Was Luce Irigaray's Speculum of the Other Woman socially relevant?How did political events after the decline of Greece change philosophy?To whom is Berkeley's idealism perplexing?What was John Rawls' theory of justice?What was Hannah Arendt's political philosophy?Thomas Hobbes Who were the stoics and what did they believe?Has Nicolaus Copernicus' theory withstood the test of time?Who was Wilfred Sellars?What were John Dewey's main philosophical ideas?Who was Jane Addams?Who was Henri Bergson?What was the relevance of Plato's Laws to Plotinus and Gallienus?Who was Henry More?How did Copernicus change the Ptolemaic system?What was mitigated or moderate skepticism as explained by Pierre Gassendi?How did William Harvey discover the closed circulatory system?What were some of Leibniz's original contributions to philosophy?What was Mary Astell's contribution to early modern philosophy?Who was William Hamilton?How did Montaigne convey his ideas?What was Ralph Barton Perry's realism?Who is Jürgen Habermas?What have Western philosophers recognized in Buddhism?Who was Herbert Marcuse?Is there a sharp distinction between Enlightenment philosophers and other intellectuals?George Herbert Mead What was Neoplatonism?What happened to Locke during his life and what were some of his important publications?Latin American Philosophy What was new in metaphysics and epistemology after logical positivism?Who was al-Ghazali?Who was Erich Fromm?Why do some people consider Martin Heidegger to be an existentialist?Analytic ethicsWhat do we know for sure about Plato's life?Who was Charles Sanders Peirce?What was Locke's solution to the Cartesian mind-body problem?Benedict de Spinoza How did James Martineau make Immanuel Kant's metaphysics religious?Who were Gilles Deleuze and Pierre-Félix Guattari?Who were the philosophical rationalists?What was Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative?Who was Maurice Merleau-Ponty?Was there only one kind of religious life for Soren Kierkegaard?Who is Daniel C. Dennett?What is distinctive about the practice of analytic philosophy?What was W.V.O. Quine's holistic view of knowledge?Who is Luce Irigaray?What has been important in second wave feminist political philosophy?THE SOPHISTSWho was Auguste Comte?Who were Max Horkheimer and Theodore Adorno?What are the Pyrrhonic tropes?What was Boyle's method of transdiction?How did Mary Astell's life affect her written work?How did falsification work according to Karl Popper?Who was Anne Conway?What did Emil Durkheim contribute to the study of suicide?What are some key facts about Edmund Burke's life?Who was Franz Brentano?St. Louis HegeliansWhy is the unity or commonality of women important?How is philosophy different from other intellectual pursuits?What are the roots of St. Anselm's ontological argument?Was F.H. Bradley also an idealist?What is Catherine MacKinnon's contribution to second wave feminist political philosophy?What are some highlights of Jane Addams' life that led her to found Hull House?What was Richard Rorty's concept of philosophy?What were Auguste Comte's sociological ideas?What were Martin Heidegger's views on death?Who was Gilbert Ryle and what was his thesis?What was Bernard Bosanquet's aesthetic theory?What is the Tao ?How were Joseph-Marie de Maistre's ideas similar to Edmund Burke's?What is sense knowledge?What characterizes nineteenth century philosophy as a foundation for current philosophical thought?What were the main ideas of the scientific revolution?What was William Whewell's theory of induction?Johann Gottlieb Fichte What is truth-functional logic?What did Paracelsus contribute to alchemy?What was disturbing about David Hume's analysis of causation?What did John Stuart Mill think about Jeremy Bentham's "pleasure principle"?Who was Otto Neurath?Who was A.J. Ayer?What was George Santayana's ontology?What was St. Augustine's role at the beginning of medieval philosophy?What was meant by "reason" during the Enlightenment?What was George Berkeley's new theory of vision?What was Spinoza's philosophical goal?What were Friedrich Hegel's main ideas?Friedrich Nietzsche Who was Hannah Arendt?Was Jonathan Edwards merciful toward sinners?What did Henry Sidgwick contribute to moral theory?What was Robert Nozick's own political theory?Was Boethius guilty or innocent of plotting against Theodoric the Great?How are psychology and philosophy related?What did Alfred North Whitehead think the world was composed of in reality?What did philosophers after Parmenides assert about the nature of appearance?Did Gottlob Frege succeed in reducing mathematics to logic?GREEK PRE-SOCRATICSHow and why did Jewish and Islamic philosophy become part of the scholastic tradition?Why did Vico oppose Cartesianism?What were the general ideas about women that were held by people in the seventeenth century?What was or is natural law?Is Jürgen Habermas' work wholly theoretical?What was Wilfred Sellars' idea of functionalism?Did Plato change his philosophy as he grew older?What was Spinoza's philosophical system?Who were the "Right" and "Left" Hegelians?How have second wave feminists addressed gender?Critical Theorists Who was Mikhail Bakunin?How did environmental philosophy get started?What is feminist reclamation?How is sociology related to philosophy?Who was Josiah Royce?What is materialism?What are the modules of the mind, according to Jerry Fodor?Did Boyle's materialism mean he was an atheist?What is Aristophanes' comedy The Clouds and how does it relate to Socrates?What were Aquinas' views on science?Was Ralph Waldo Emerson an abolitionist?What are some other notable works by Montaigne?What needed to be reconciled between Carl Popper and Thomas Kuhn?What was Edmund Husserl's phenomenological method?Who were some important women philosophers from antiquity?Why were Locke's views on religion influential?How did Anaximander seek to revise Thales' philosophy?SKEPTICISM AND NATURAL PHILOSOPHY What was Friedrich Schelling's major thesis?Why is gender an important topic in studies of early modern philosophy?What was John Stuart Mill's final assessment of religious belief?Was Newton an eccentric personality?What were Emil Durkheim's main ideas?Why did philosophy start in ancient Greece?THE PHILOSOPHES What question does deep ecology pose for philosophers?What happened in Athens after both Plato and Aristotle were gone?What was Noam Chomsky's argument against behaviorism?Who was Edith Stein?Who was Martin Heidegger?Did Malebranche have a more extensive philosophy to support his theory of causation?What were Soren Kierkegaard's "stages of life's way"?Who was John Dewey?What did Friedrich Hegel think was the highest form of spirit?What is verificationism?Did nineteenth-century American philosophers directly take up evolution?Who was H.P. Grice?What is Jerry Fodor's modular theory of mind?What are the major works of Thomas Aquinas?How do philosophers deal with ethical relativism?From what did Vico believe the cycles of history originated?Who was John Rawls?What is the method behind ordinary language philosophy?What was Friedrich Nietzsche's idea of a "gay science?"Thomas AquinasWhat did Arthur Schopenhauer mean by his acronym WELT?What was Ludwig Wittgenstein's private language argument?What is behaviorism?What were Voltaire's main contributions to philosophy?What is the causal theory of meaning?NEOPLATONISM Jane Addams Who was Ferdinand de Saussure?How did Ptolemy's view of the solar system become the accepted theory?Who was C.I. Lewis?What did Gorgias say about thought versus existence?Is Hegel's system purely abstract?Why were the Sophists important philosophically?What was Hobbes' solution to Descartes' mind-body problem?What are some key facts about Edmund Husserl's life and career?What are some highlights of Friedrich Hegel's career?What was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's lasting influence?Did early Neoplatonism include women philosophers?What are academic and Pyrrhonic skepticism?What were Edmund Burke's political background and beliefs?What are some facts about Maurice Merleau-Ponty's life and career?What religious issues are involved in environmental thought, pro and con?What was Plato's Academy?PHILOSOPHY OF MATHEMATICS AND LOGICWho is Julia Kristeva?Who was Alan Mathison Turing?What is African American philosophy?Who was Arete of Cyrene?Was the Ptolemaic theory merely a matter of religious faith?Who has claimed that animals have rights?Who were the early Neoplatonists?What is the problem caused by intersectionality?How did Isaiah Berlin oppose Marxist historicism?Who was Peter Kropotkin?What were the main facts about Whewell's life?PLATOWhat was Charles Peirce's philosophical system?The Scholastics Ordinary language philosophyWhat are Afro-centrism and the African Diaspora?Who was Isaac Newton?HELLENISTIC AND ROMAN PHILOSOPHYWho was Margaret Fuller?Who was Sigmund Freud?What did Aquinas contribute to metaphysics in the non-religious sense?What was most important about Aristotle's work?Who was Antonio Gramsci?Truth-Functional Logic and Logical Atomism How did other philosophers and scientists react to Pierre Gassendi's views?What did St. Anselm of Canterbury begin?What are Jürgen Habermas' main ideas?THOMAS REID AND JEREMY BENTHAM Was Thomas More serious about his utopian vision?What were Wollstonecraft's theoretical innovations?What was anti-Aristotelianism?What was philosophical about the thought of Desiderius Erasmus?How did the Church react to Galileo's theories?When did women philosophers first start to become recognized as part of philosophy?Was Michel Foucault an existentialist?Who was Plotinus?What was Jean-François Lyotard's view of postmodernism?How was John Duns Scotus' work different from Thomas Aquinas'?New England Transcendentalists What is Kepler famous for?What was evolutionary thought like in America during the nineteenth century?Who is Noam Chomsky?Who was Edmund Husserl?What was Sigmund Freud's oedipal theory?Who was René Descartes?What was Gilles Deleuze like as a person?Who was Isaiah Berlin?What did Aquinas think about the soul?How was Simone de Beauvoir influential as a feminist?Was Aquinas able to solve the conflict between faith and reason?Who was William Whewell?Did Malebranche lead an exciting life?What kind of a materialist was Ludwig Feuerbach?Bernard Bosanquet How are existentialism and phenomenology historically related?What were Isaiah Berlin's two concepts of liberty?What was Berkeley's critique of Newtonian science?What were the important themes in early twentieth century analytic philosophy?How were Friedrich Schilling's views of culture aesthetic?When did philosophy begin?What is Sufism?How does Martin Heidegger embarrass the Heideggerians?How did Pyrrhonic skepticism affect early modern natural philosophy?What have been the major themes and issues in African American philosophy?W.V.O. Quine Did other's share the mystical aspects of Nicolaus Copernicus' system?What did Plato mean by the divided line?Who were the Sophists?Why aren't there any women philosophers from ancient Greece and Rome who became well known?Did Asclepigenia suffer the same fate as Hypatia?What are some key events for which Socrates is often remembered?How is environmentalism related to feminism?What is the linguistic turn?Who was Hans Reichenbach?What was John Stuart Mill's view of logic and scientific methodology?What is the "problem of universals"?How did Denton Jacques Snider interpret Friedrich Hegel?What kind of life did Ralph Waldo Emerson lead?What is the "problem of the criterion" as put forth by Montaigne?What was Johann Gottlieb Fichte's political philosophy?GENDER AND EARLY MODERN WOMEN PHILOSOPHERSWhat was Jean-Paul Sartre's basis for his idea of freedom?What are the other American philosophies?Has science removed all of the mystery of life?CONTINENTAL PHILOSOPHYWhat was dogmatism?Who was Emil Durkheim?What is hedonic calculus?What was Otto Neurath's main philosophical contribution?What was Hobbes' belief about free will?JOHANNES KEPLER'S INFLUENCEWho was Henry Sidgwick?How did Hobbes explain sensation, memory, imagination, thought, and emotion?Who was Jonathan Edwards?What was Aristotle's main contribution to Western philosophy?Jean-Paul Sartre Who was F.H. Bradley?What did Thomas Reid believe about free will?How important was Joseph-Marie de Maistre?What are the four causes as defined by Aristotle?What is American philosophy?What was new about Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's thought?Other american philosophies What were the goals of activist second wave feminists?Why have existentialist philosophers claimed Dostoyevsky as one of their own?What are some of the main themes in philosophy of biology?What were Arthur Schopenhauer's main ideas?Who was Thomas Hobbes?Who was Nelson Goodman?What was Williams James' main contribution to psychology?How is environmentalism related to racial and international studies?Who was Jean-Paul Sartre?How did John Stuart Mill define the difference between higher and lower pleasures?How are dogs like cynics?Who was Queen Christina and why was she important in Descartes' life?Who was J.L. Austin?Was anything absolutely wrong in Aristotle's view?Did all nineteenth-century thinkers believe in progress?What was William Hamilton's philosophy of the conditioned?What was The One?Who was Friedrich Hegel?What is early modern philosophy?What was Alexius Meinong's psychological theory?In a nutshell, what did Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels write in their philosophy?How did Max Weber connect Protestantism to capitalism?What are Venn diagrams?How did Alain Locke apply pragmatism to issues of race and culture?Friedrich Hegel Would marriage have changed the emotional lives of seventeenth century philosophers?What did Soren Kierkegaard deem his main vocation in life?RENAISSANCE HUMANISMHas anyone succeeded in refuting Anselm's ontological argument?What did Wollstonecraft claim on behalf of women?Who was Friedrich Engels?Is philosophy only found in the West?How did Spinoza's system solve Cartesianism?Who is Jerry Fodor?How did Henri Bergson relate real time to free will?Why was Averroés considered important by other philosophers?What are some key facts about Charles Peirce's career and life?How did Michel Foucault's philosophy develop?What was the debate between the Phyrrhonian and academic skeptics?Who was Francisco Suârez?What are problems with functionalism as a theory of mind?What was Soren Kierkegaard's burning question?What was the importance of Jewish philosophy in medieval thought?What was Bentham's Principle of Utility?What was Gottlob Frege's landmark insight about meaning?What was Peter Lombard's contribution to medieval philosophy?What was Immanuel Kant's theory of the self?What were Thomas Aquinas' main original ideas?Why was Thomas Reid important?What is phenomenalism?What is metaphysical idealism?What was Karl Popper's notion of the open society?What are primary qualities and secondary qualities?Who was Simone de Beauvoir?Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach Who was Ralph Barton Perry?THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION What are some highlights of Johann Gottlieb Fichte's career?What is the origin of materialism, Marxism, and anarchism in the modern era?Who was Johannes Scotus Eriugena?What were Ralph Waldo Emerson's requirements for a scholar?How have Japanese, Chinese, and Indian philosophy recently entered Anglo-American philosophy?What was Thomas Hobbes life like?What was Ayn Rand's philosophy of objectivism?What was Robert Boyle's atomic theory?What is philosophy?What is known about Aristotle's life?Why is philosophy important?Nicolas Malebranche What are Aristotle's 10 categories of existing things?MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY What did Parmenides and his Eleatic school believe?Did Socrates really exist?Philosophy of scienceWhat were William James' theories concerning religion and free will?How and why was Locke's idea of the social contract different from Hobbes'?René Descartes Was John Stuart Mill a socialist or a capitalist?How did Hilary Putnam agree with W.V.O. Quine on the analytic-synthetic distinction?What does philosophy have to do with ordinary life?What did Francis Bacon contribute to the scientific revolution?What are these various specializations and subfields of philosophy?What is Socratic irony?What other continental traditions are new to Western philosophy?WOMEN PHILOSOPHERS IN ANCIENT GREECE AND ROMEWhat was Michel Foucault's method for forming his cultural criticism?Jacques Derrida and Deconstructionism Why was Pyrrho important?What was the goal of the encyclopedists?What were Maimonides' main intellectual contributions?What was Thomas Kuhn's paradigm theory?What was the emotivist theory of ethics?What was Spinoza's legacy?What is continental philosophy?Who were the important philosophers of middle stoicism?What has medicine got to do with the history of philosophy?Was Bacon's life as direct and clear as his ideas?Who was Alfred North Whitehead?What was original in Jonathan Edwards' view of God?Who was Max Weber?What are the major themes in new philosophy?How did lamblichus practice Neoplatonism?What were the main themes and claims in classic African American literature?Who were the main early modern philosophers?How did Descartes solve his evil demon hypothesis?What is deconstructionism?Who was Jules Henri Poincare?Ludwig Wittgenstein Early twentieth century analytic philosophyWhat is known about Immanuel Kant's life?Friedrich Schelling What is ethical subjectivism?What are some key facts about John Dewey's life and career?What were the main elements of Newton's scientific system and what did they have to do with God?How is Christian philosophy different from Christian theology?What is the connection between religion and philosophy?GERMAN IDEALISMPostmodern philosophy Who was Sagoewatha?AUGUSTE COMTEWhat makes the concerns of these historically disadvantaged groups part of philosophy?What were the main ideas of the Pre-Socratics?Richard Rorty What was Protagoras famous for?Was Diotima of Mantinea a real or fictional female philosopher?What is grue?How have consequentialists responded to criticism?What was Bernard Bosanquet's idealist doctrine?MarxismWhat do critics of the deep ecological and animal value views claim?Who was Louis Althusser?What was original about Locke's thoughts concerning education?What were Wollstonecraft's main political ideas?What was Alexius Meinong's theory of value?What was Social Darwinism?Does philosophy only deal with the big questions about life and the universe?Other continental traditionsHow do we know the One?What was the Enlightenment?Who was Jacques Derrida?Why has there been a third wave in feminism?What is the school of thought of Buddhism?How did Thomas Nagel object to functionalism?Who was Pierre-Simon Laplace?Who were the Cambridge Neoplatonists?What was Greek wisdom?What is known about Leibniz's life?What is a scientific revolution according to Thomas Kuhn?What did Martin Heidegger mean by "ontology?"What was René Descartes' problem with the Inquisition?What was Thales' contribution as the first philosopher in Western history?Who was Moritz Schlick?Where does the human mind fit into Hegel's idealism?Other ExistentialistsHow did Johannes Kepler and Tycho Brahe help complete the Copernican Revolution?Who was Avicenna?What was Martin Heidegger's question concerning technology?What was skepticism?SEVENTEENTH CENTURY EMPIRICISM How did William James come to develop pragmatism?How did Edmund Husserl distinguish between two types of the self?What is epistemological rationalism?EXISTENTIALISMWhat was Ralph Barton Perry's theory of value?What is philosophical about feminist philosophy?What is the connection between philosophy of mind and philosophy of language in analytic philosophy?Who was Paracelsus?Who was Soren Kierkegaard?Why did Pierre Gassendi promote mitigated skepticism?Who was P.F. Strawson?Why is materialism important regarding the analytic philosophy of mind?Is philosophy just the beliefs and theories of individual philosophers?What was Ayn Rand's virtue of selfishness?William James How did the Pyrrhonic skeptics alleviate dogmatism?How did Leibniz define his principles?How did Hume proceed philosophically to create his science of the mind?What other accomplishments are attributed to Thales?Did the study of some of the sciences get their start in philosophy?What happened in analytic philosophy of science over the course of the twentieth century?What was new in Hume's views on religion?What was Francico Suârez's view of metaphysics?Was the Vienna Circle an actual organization?What was Immanuel Kant's moral system?What were some of Newton's career accomplishments?What was Henry David Thoreau's philosophical contribution?How were John Stuart Mill's views on women influential?What is Noam Chomsky's own theory of language?Was nineteenth century evolutionary thought connected to ideas of progress?What were the important ideas of the Sophists?EARLY MODERN PHILOSOPHYWhat was the Athenian school of Neoplatonism?Who was Pyrrho of Elis?Process Philosophy Who was Albertus Magnus?What is known about Corpernicus' life?What was the reaction of Pre-Socratic philosophers to Parmenides' monism?Ralph Barton Perry How were nineteenth century German idealists different from Plato or George Berkeley?Who were the main defenders of sense knowledge at the beginning of modern science?Who were the Encyclopedists?What was John Stuart Mill's formulation of utilitarianism?Why was John Stuart Mill important?What is the story of Descartes' life?Did Sigmund Freud analyze himself?In what way was St. Teresa of Avila a Renaissance figure?What was Leibniz's monadology?Who was Bernard Bosanquet?How did Nicolas Malebranche react to Descartes' mind-body problem?What were Bentham's life and career like?What was Hobbes' idea of the social contract?Martin Heidegger What did the dialogue between the Pre-Socratics reveal about their philosophy?Why was Pythagoras important?What was A.J. Ayer's version of logical positivism?What is Buddhism?What was Martin Heidegger's theory of time?What are the main themes and influences in philosophy of technology?Who was Hilary Putnam?What were Plato's dialogues?What was George Santayana's contribution to pragmaticism?Who is Ruth Barcan Marcus?How did Ralph Waldo Emerson define transcendentalism?Philosophy of languageWere all eighteenth-century thinkers in agreement with Enlightenment themes?Why did Martin Heidegger claim that existentialism was not a type of humanism?How was Hume a man of contradictions?How did Gottlob Frege attempt to reduce mathematics to logic?John Dewey What did Hippias contribute to learning?What reforms did Cesare Beccaria advocate?How did Arthur Schopenhauer think we could best become aware of noumenal will?What are some of the current issues in Native American philosophy?Who was R. Hare?Maurice Merleau-Ponty What did Thrasymachus think about the concept of justice?What was philosophically significant about nineteenth-century psychology and social theory?Fyodor DostoyevskyWhat is ordinary language philosophy?Who was Robert Nozick?What is consequentialism?Gottfried Wilhelm LeibnizWhat was G.E. Moore's naturalistic fallacy?What have been the major trends in Latin American philosophy?Who was William James?MaimonidesWas Christianity the only religious influence on philosophy after the ancient period?What are the qualities/characteristics of Friedrich Nietzsche's Overman?Who was Johann Gottlieb Fichte?The Vienna CircleWhat general philosophical problems does environmentalism pose?NEOPLATONISM THROUGH THE RENAISSANCEWas Copernicus' new theory purely scientific?What has been Arne Naess' philosophical influence?Why was Aquinas called the "Angelic Doctor" by Catholics?Who was George Santayana?What aspects of Dostoevsky's life influenced his deep interest in human difficulty?THE ENLIGHTENMENT PERIODWhat is ancient cynicism?Who was Galileo?How well were Ockam's ideas first received?Who were the scholastics?Who was Georg Simmel?What were Bernard Bosanquet's main ideas concerning social philosophy?Which Counter-Enlightenment figures had lasting effects on philosophy?What is mysterianism?Arthur Schopenhauer What was the Invisible College?What was logical atomism?What is Dasein?Who was Nicolas Malebranche?What are the Socratic paradoxes?How were alchemists regarded by their peers?What did Zarathustra say in Friedrich Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra?What was Bacon's influence?Did Anselm face objections to his ontological argument?Why were "ideas" important to Berkeley?Why was Adam Smith's work important?Who was Friedrich Schelling?COUNTER-ENLIGHTENMENT FIGURESWhy was Montaigne important?Who was Thomas Aquinas and what made him known as the greatest medieval philosopher?Who is Angela Davis?How did W.V.O. Quine naturalize epistemology?Who was Jean-François Lyotard?What influence did Ludwig Feuerbach have on others?How did Derrida explain deconstructionism in his Of Grammatology?Who was O.K. Bouwsma?Who was St. Teresa and what were her main ideas?Who were the New England Transcendentalists?What was C.I. Lewis' form of pragmatism?What did George Berkeley think of matter, extension, and other mainstays secured by René Descartes and refined by John Locke?How was Jonathan Swift opposed to Enlightenment values?How did Peter Kropotkin come to form his life philosophy?What was Ludwig Wittgenstein's major insight concerning ordinary language and philosophy?What are the pitfalls and promises of experimental philosophy?How were Ludwig Feuerbach's ideas received?What is environmentalism?African American Philosophy What was some of the Catholic response to Martin Luther's dogmatism?What, besides ethics, is philosophical about environmentalism?Jürgen Habermas Why was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon against women's rights?What did Augustine confess in Confessions?Jerry FodorAlexius Meinong Who was G.E. Moore?How did the St. Louis Hegelians apply their philosophy?Once the idols are eliminated what did this allow us to do, according to Bacon?What was Hume's problem of induction?What were the main original ideas that were important to Johann Gottlieb Fichte's philosophy?Who was Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach?Who was Themistocles?Why has Noam Chomsky's theory of language been so influential?Which early American philosophical strains were most influential?Noam ChomskyDid Thomas Reid have his own ideas, in addition to saying why the empiricists were wrong?What is the difference between ethics and morals?What was Anaxagoras' idea about the Mind?Herbert SpencerWhat was the reaction to Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy?What was Peter Kropokin's view of Darwinism in society?What was Berkeley's answer to whether a tree falling in the forest makes a sound?Who was Thomas Kuhn?What kinds of jobs do philosophers have?What is distinctive about analytical political philosophy?What was Karl Popper's theory of falsification?Who was David Hume?What roles did others play in furthering Francis Bacon's ideas?Who were René Descartes' royal female correspondents?MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT AND WILLIAM GODWINWhat did Descartes mean by "clear and distinct ideas"?What was Reichenbach's theory of logical empiricism?How Did G.E. Moore develop his common sense philosophy?How did Alan Sokal attack postmodernism?What is Fodor's language of thought hypothesis?What were the common themes of the Enlightenment?Bertrand Russell How was skepticism related to the scientific revolution?What are John Stuart Mill's progressive ideas in The Subjection of Women?What were Descartes' main ideas in Passions of the Soul?Which of the other Enlightenment thinkers were most directly relevant to philosophy?CRITICAL THEORY AND STRUCTURALISMIn what ways did William Whewell disagree with Immanuel Kant?What was Friedrich Hegel's system?What is feminist philosophy of science?What is the distinction between deep and shallow ecology?Who was Marie-Luise Enckendorf?Who was Benedict de Spinoza?How was Newton's system received?Did Galileo contribute more than a defense of Copernicus to science and philosophy?How is philosophy related to other fields?What is ethical (or moral) relativism?What was Francis Bacon's New Atlantis about?What are some other interesting facts about A.J. Ayer's life and career?What are some details of the Marquis de Sade's life?Who was Ralph Waldo Emerson?Who was Rudolf Carnap?G.E. Moore ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHYWhat was medieval philosophy?Did Vico interact with other Enlightenment thinkers over his lifetime?How did Imre Lakatos' research program reconcile Popper and Kuhn's work?How did Friedrich Nietzsche's life presage his philosophy?What was the intellectual merit of de Sade's endeavors?What was Franz Brentano's main contribution to empirical psychology?What was Marsilio Ficino's contribution to the spirit of the Renaissance?Who was Amos Bronson Alcott?What are some important facts about Johann Gottlieb Fichte's career?What were Georg Simmel's thoughts on fashion and money?What did Simone de Beauvoir mean by an ethics of ambiguity?What was Martin Heidegger's theory of space?What did Ralph Waldo Emerson mean by the "over-soul"?What was Arthur Schopenhauer's moral system?What was Plato's metaphysical theory of forms?What was the analytic/synthetic distinction and why did C.I. Lewis need it?Who was Jacques Lacan?Who was Jean Baudrillard?Who was Rousseau?Why was René Descartes' idea of substance a problem for the empiricists?What was Gottlob Frege's main innovation in the philosophy of logic?What is ethical naturalism?Who were the Pre-Socratics?What did Pope Honorius III consider heretical about Johannes Scotus Eriugena's treatise?Who influenced George Berkeley?What have been the two main subjects of Western philosophy?What is non-Euclidian geometry?What is analytic philosophy?What happened to the founders of the St. Louis Philosophical Society?How did George Berkeley's theory of vision relate to the concept of matter and physical existence?How did Johannes Kepler's career develop?Why was the single status of early modern men of science and philosophy important?Have some philosophers criticized consequentialism?How were virtue ethics rediscovered in analytic philosophy?What were William Whewell's main ideas?What were Herbert Spencer's ideas about evolution?What were Plato's main ideas as presented and developed in his early dialogues?What did Edward Gibbon contribute?What is a syllogism?Who were the main Social Darwinists?What was John Dewey's theory of art?Who were some female Pythagoreans?Who was Friedrich Nietzsche?How was A.J. Ayer a phenomenalist?What is pragmatism?Who was Alain Locke?What was Betham's main proposal for prison reform?What was Immanuel Kant's Copernican Revolution?What is Pierre-Simon Laplace's theory of probability?What was Immanuel Kant's proof of God's existence?How did René Descartes' philosophical work begin?Which of these new philosophies are fads and which will last?What was nineteenth century intuitionism?Has there been much progress in philosophy?Who was James Martineau?More French Postmodern Philosophers What was Richard Rorty's view of truth?Was military invasion of Europe part of the religious practice of Islam during the medieval period?What is anarchism?DAVID HUMEWhat were Rousseau's most influential ideas?What were some noteworthy advances in medicine during the scientific revolution?C.I. Lewis MEDICINE AND PHILOSOPHYLogical positivismWho first came up with the concept of atoms?What is French feminism?Who were the early seventeenth century "free thinkers" after Montaigne?What is anarchism?What is the philosophy of biology?Did Plato and Aristotle influence early Christian and medieval philosophy?What was Alasdair Maclntyre's contribution to virtue ethics?Who were some of Robert Boyle's scientific influences?What were Josiah Royce's ethical and religious views?What were Voltaire's religious views?THE CAMBRIDGE PLATONISTS Francisco SuArezWho was Imre Lakatos?Who was Hypatia of Alexandria?Feminist philosophyWhat is moral conventionalism?SEVENTEENTH CENTURY RATIONALISMWho was Kurt Godel?For what is Luce Iragary most famous?Who was George Herbert Mead?Who was George Berkeley?Native American Philosophy Early american philosophical strainsWhat did Maurice Merleau-Ponty mean by a "phenomenology of perception"?Who was Leibniz?Who was Gottlob Frege?Who are some Dark Ages philosophers who came after St. Augustine?What did George Berkeley think of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities?What is experimental philosophy?What were Friedrich Nietzsche's views on religion?What is existentialism?Did Rousseau support a free society?What was Confucius' influence?How was Neoplatonism similar to Christianity?What kind of a Marxist was Jean-Paul Sartre?What were the ideas of some of the humanist existentialists?How did medicine progress after Hippocrates?What was individually noteworthy about Diderot, d'Alembert, Holbach, and Montesquieu?Who was Ayn Rand?What was William Whewell's intuitionist moral philosophy?What happened that affected empiricism in the nineteenth century?When and how did the scientific revolution begin?What are some examples of the perplexities Maimonides set out in his Guide of the Perplexed?Did Plato change his philosophical theory of forms?Who was Charles Hartshorne?What is Daniel C. Dennett's philosophy of biology?Who was Norman Malcolm?What was Vico's new view of history as knowledge?NINETEENTH CENTURY PHILOSOPHYWhat was impressive about Averroés' life and work?What are some results of experimental philosophy?What are some of Friedrich Nietzsche's important works?What advances were made during the nineteenth century concerning the philosophy of mathematics and logic?MICHEL DE MONTAIGNE MATERIALISM, MARXISM, AND ANARCHISTSWho was Ernest Nagel?What was the most striking Native American contribution to American philosophy?How was Giambattista Vico a unique philosopher of his time?What were the shared goals of the St. Louis Hegelians?What was David Hume's great ambition in philosophy?What did Prodicus tell his audiences?What is German idealism?Who were the St. Louis Hegelians?What was Paul Feyerabend's view of science?Other Logicians What were the main philosophical aspects of the scientific revolution?How did Hull House fulfill pragmatist ideals of knowledge?Charles Sanders Peirce What are the distinctive methods of postmodern philosophy?What were the ideas of the main religious existentialists?What was Cambridge Platonism?Why are Immanuel Kant's epistemology and metaphysics transcendental?JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAUWhat was Karl Popper's contribution to philosophy of science?Who were the natural philosophers?What was An Essay in Defense of the Female Sex?What were some of Josiah Royce's metaphysical ideas?Who was Michel Foucault?Did Hume believe that we have free will?What was the influence of logical atomism?Soren Kierkegaard Analytic political philosophyWhat was Aristotle's theory of the virtues?Was Alexius Meinong serious about nonexistent objects?Is there interest in the Marquis de Sade today?What is Catherine MacKinnon's argument against pornography?How did skepticism further arguments for faith and mysticism?How were Locke's ideas about substance related to his theory of knowledge?Was Immanuel Kant an important figure of the Enlightenment?What is fideism and what does it have to do with what Montaigne demonstrated about skepticism?What was Edmund Husserl's doctrine of intentionality?How did Neoplatonism become popular?Who was Tenskwatawa?What are some of Peter Singer's views?How did Peter Lombard answer his question of whether God was the cause of evil and sin?What are some of Aristotle's works and what are they about?What were Hippocrates' accomplishments and influence?Who was Boethius?What was Immanuel Kant's notion of synthetic a priori knowledge?Who was Arthur Schopenhauer?What was alchemy?What was interesting about Voltaire's life?What is philosophy of film?What exactly was Parmendides reasoning in his claims about the One?What is Peter Abelard known for in philosophy?Did Auguste Comte believe in altruism?Is there or has there been an African philosophy?What are the philosophical issues about racial identity?Did Aristotle think that morality had a purpose or "final cause"?How was Johann Gottlieb Fichte's idealism connected to freedom?What were William James' main pragmatic interests?How did Anaximenes revise the theories of Anaximander?Is Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative different from the Golden Rule?What are the issues addressed by Latino-Latina/Hispanic-American philosophy?What was Immanuel Kant's second formulation of the categorical imperative?How is Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy both stoic and Neoplatonic?Social DarwinismEnvironmental philosophy Who was Claude Lévi-Strauss?How did Spinoza consider good and evil?What was the Sidgwick's interest in the paranormal?Why is Maimonides' Guide of the Perplexed still considered a great philosophical text?What are the three waves of feminism according to feminist philosophers?PHENOMENOLOGYWhat were the new logic and four types of idols made famous by Francis Bacon's Novum Organum?What was new about the thinking of the Pre-Socratics?Who was Walter Benjamin?What was Charles Peirce's fourth system?What was W.V.O. Quine's attack on the analytic-synthetic distinction?Why are LBGT studies and queer theory part of philosophy now?How did Locke use natural law to construct a theory of government?FRANCIS BACON AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONWas Descartes a Cartesian?What was John Dewey's metaphysics?ARISTOTLE Was Montaigne the only skeptical philosopher to reason in this Pyrrhonnic way?Who was William Godwin?NINETEENTH CENTURY EMPIRICISM Who were the key players in the theories and practice of them in the scientific revolution?SOCRATES
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