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A short course of lectures
«The handy philosophy answer book»

What has medicine got to do with the history of philosophy?What was Hobbes' solution to Descartes' mind-body problem?What was William Whewell's fundamental antithesis of knowledge?How was George Berkeley's occasionalism distinctive?Friedrich Schelling What were Averroes most noteworthy ideas?SEVENTEENTH CENTURY EMPIRICISM Was Diotima of Mantinea a real or fictional female philosopher?What was Bernard Bosanquet's aesthetic theory?What were Thomas Aquinas' main original ideas?What are some of John Stuart Mill's influential publications?Who was John Rawls?What was William Whewell's intuitionist moral philosophy?What was Cambridge Platonism?What were some noteworthy advances in medicine during the scientific revolution?What is deconstructionism?How did W.V.O. Quine naturalize epistemology?Who were the Encyclopedists?How did Johannes Kepler and Tycho Brahe help complete the Copernican Revolution?Social DarwinismWhy was Aquinas called the "Angelic Doctor" by Catholics?What have been the major themes and issues in African American philosophy?Is Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative different from the Golden Rule?What is Aristophanes' comedy The Clouds and how does it relate to Socrates?Was Boethius guilty or innocent of plotting against Theodoric the Great?Sigmund FreudWhat was Karl Popper's contribution to philosophy of science?What was W.V.O. Quine's view of existence?What was Hobbes' theory of government in Leviathan?What was original in Jonathan Edwards' view of God?Bernard Bosanquet Who was Henry More?What was dogmatism?Who was Gotthold Lessing?What is known about Immanuel Kant's life?What was Immanuel Kant's notion of synthetic a priori knowledge?What are some highlights of Johann Gottlieb Fichte's career?Who was Themistocles?How was Vico's thought opposed to the Enlightenment?Who were the main early modern philosophers?What were Isaiah Berlin's two concepts of liberty?How is environmentalism related to feminism?How does Martin Heidegger embarrass the Heideggerians?Who was Kurt Godel?What were Josiah Royce's ethical and religious views?Who was Hannah Arendt?What is ordinary language philosophy?Which Counter-Enlightenment figures had lasting effects on philosophy?What were William James' theories concerning religion and free will?THE BASICSG.E. Moore What are the other American philosophies?What is logical positivism?What was Hobbes' belief about free will?What was so revolutionary about the scientific revolution?What was George Berkeley's new theory of vision?Who was Otto Neurath?Who was Maurice Merleau-Ponty?How did non-Euclidian geometry affect other fields?What was the reaction to the Meditations?What's the difference between the practice of philosophy and the subject of philosophy?What are the major themes in new philosophy?Did other's share the mystical aspects of Nicolaus Copernicus' system?What is known about Corpernicus' life?What is African American philosophy?Who was Norman Malcolm?What is the method behind ordinary language philosophy?Why were Locke's views on religion influential?What was An Essay in Defense of the Female Sex?How did Isaiah Berlin oppose Marxist historicism?What ideals for scientists did the early Royal Society promote?What was Charles Peirce's fourth system?What did Alfred North Whitehead think the world was composed of in reality?What did Parmenides and his Eleatic school believe?What was the influence of logical atomism?Who was Antonio Gramsci?What was alchemy?What were Burke's main ideas in political theory?What was philosophically significant about nineteenth-century psychology and social theory?Who was Ralph Waldo Emerson?Why was Adam Smith's work important?Who was Friedrich Hegel?Jürgen Habermas What kind of life did Ralph Waldo Emerson lead?What are problems with functionalism as a theory of mind?What are the major works of Thomas Aquinas?Who was O.K. Bouwsma?What are the modules of the mind, according to Jerry Fodor?What was Jean-Paul Sartre's version of existentialism?What was the emotivist theory of ethics?What are the four causes as defined by Aristotle?Was the Vienna Circle an actual organization?How did environmental philosophy get started?Who were Max Horkheimer and Theodore Adorno?Who was Isaac Newton?What was Plato's metaphysical theory of forms?Was F.H. Bradley also an idealist?Thomas Hobbes William James What is Socratic irony?Did philosophy lead to the other sciences all at once?What are the pitfalls and promises of experimental philosophy?Who was Richard Rorty?How did Hume proceed philosophically to create his science of the mind?What are the qualities/characteristics of Friedrich Nietzsche's Overman?What is metaphysical idealism?What has been important in second wave feminist political philosophy?What were Rousseau's most influential ideas?Why was René Descartes' idea of substance a problem for the empiricists?What is epistemological rationalism?Did Vico interact with other Enlightenment thinkers over his lifetime?What did Martin Heidegger mean by "ontology?"What was distinctive about Elizabeth Elstob?AMERICAN PHILOSOPHYWho were the early seventeenth century "free thinkers" after Montaigne?What was Vico's new view of history as knowledge?What exactly was Parmendides reasoning in his claims about the One?What is moral conventionalism?Who was Robert Nozick?What was Michel Foucault's method for forming his cultural criticism?How did Thomas Nagel object to functionalism?Who is Julia Kristeva?When did women philosophers first start to become recognized as part of philosophy?Why was Bernardo Telesio called "the first of the moderns" by Francis Bacon?What are some details of Sigmund Freud's life that led him to his work?DAVID HUMEWhat were Aquinas' views on science?What was the Sidgwick's interest in the paranormal?What was Sigmund Freud's interpretation of hysteria?What was Peter Kropokin's view of Darwinism in society?PHILOSOPHY OF MATHEMATICS AND LOGICWhat is feminism and feminist philosophy?How was Neoplatonism similar to Christianity?Who was Erich Fromm?Feminist philosophyWho was Benedict de Spinoza?What is hedonic calculus?What is Noam Chomsky's own theory of language?What did George Berkeley mean when he said, "To be is to be perceived"?Does philosophy only deal with the big questions about life and the universe?Why is materialism important regarding the analytic philosophy of mind?Sociology and Philosophy What is Kepler famous for?What was William James' pragmatic epistemology?What did Friedrich Hegel think was the highest form of spirit?Who was Ayn Rand?What was the most striking Native American contribution to American philosophy?What was Karl Popper's notion of the open society?What were some of Josiah Royce's metaphysical ideas?SEVENTEENTH CENTURY RATIONALISMWho was Jean Baudrillard?What are some of Friedrich Nietzsche's important works?What happened in Athens after both Plato and Aristotle were gone?Who has claimed that animals have rights?Who was Jane Addams?What was Otto Neurath's main philosophical contribution?How were nineteenth century German idealists different from Plato or George Berkeley?What are some key facts about John Dewey's life and career?When and how did the scientific revolution begin?What was the Invisible College?Who was Arete of Cyrene?What kinds of jobs do philosophers have?What is moral theory?What are Jürgen Habermas' main ideas?What were Friedrich Nietzsche's views on religion?What is materialism?Who was William James?Is there interest in the Marquis de Sade today?What were the emotional conditions in Soren Kierkegaard's life?What did Pope Honorius III consider heretical about Johannes Scotus Eriugena's treatise?What is Daniel C. Dennett's philosophy of biology?What is Dasein?What was Thales' contribution as the first philosopher in Western history?What do critics of the deep ecological and animal value views claim?What was Rosicrucianism?What was G.E. Moore's naturalistic fallacy?How was Johann Gottlieb Fichte's idealism connected to freedom?How were John Stuart Mill's views on women influential?PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL THEORYWhat is behaviorism?Who was Marie-Luise Enckendorf?What were Martin Heidegger's views on death?What was Peter Lombard's contribution to medieval philosophy?Who was Herbert Spencer?MarxismWhat was Hannah Arendt's political philosophy?What was Rousseau's life like?Who was Pyrrho of Elis?Hilary Putman What was the debate between the Phyrrhonian and academic skeptics?What did Francis Bacon contribute to the scientific revolution?What did Aristotle think about government and politics?What were Bernard Bosanquet's main ideas concerning social philosophy?Was Bacon's life as direct and clear as his ideas?What is process philosophy?To whom is Berkeley's idealism perplexing?What is ethical naturalism?What is anarchism?Thomas AquinasWho was Herbert Marcuse?What was medieval philosophy?How do philosophers deal with ethical relativism?How did Spinoza consider good and evil?How did Arthur Schopenhauer think we could best become aware of noumenal will?What is grue?Who was George Berkeley?Who were René Descartes' royal female correspondents?When did philosophy begin?What was George Santayana's contribution to pragmaticism?Who influenced George Berkeley?What was impressive about Averroés' life and work?What was Hobbes' idea of the social contract?What was W.V.O. Quine's holistic view of knowledge?What was Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative?Who was F.H. Bradley?What are some of the main themes in philosophy of biology?What was the Frankfurt School?What were Descartes' main ideas in Passions of the Soul?Who was Mary Wollstonecraft?What is the distinction between deep and shallow ecology?How did Alain Locke apply pragmatism to issues of race and culture?How did Hobbes explain sensation, memory, imagination, thought, and emotion?What is Catherine MacKinnon's contribution to second wave feminist political philosophy?What was the Athenian school of Neoplatonism?How did John Searle disagree with Alan Mathison Turing?Who was Sigmund Freud?Who was Johannes Scotus Eriugena?Why is philosophy important?Was Isaac Newton rewarded for his scientific discoveries?Was the Ptolemaic theory merely a matter of religious faith?How have consequentialists responded to criticism?What was William James' pragmatic ethics?CRITICAL THEORY AND STRUCTURALISMHow is philosophy related to other fields?What did Plato mean by the divided line?Who was Karl Marx?What is the other minds problem in philosophy?What was Franz Brentano's main contribution to empirical psychology?Who was Alexius Meinong?Who was Franz Brentano?What was Charles Peirce's philosophical system?Did Malebranche have a more extensive philosophy to support his theory of causation?What did Maurice Merleau-Ponty mean by a "phenomenology of perception"?How did Gottlob Frege attempt to reduce mathematics to logic?What are the three waves of feminism according to feminist philosophers?What are some highlights of Friedrich Hegel's career?Who was Anne Conway?How did race become important in feminist philosophy?How did Peter Kropotkin come to form his life philosophy?What is "the they"?What historical developments helped to start Renaissance humanism?What is the causal theory of meaning?Why is Maimonides' Guide of the Perplexed still considered a great philosophical text?What was Charles Peirce's pragmaticism?GEORGE BERKELEYWhat other accomplishments are attributed to Thales?Why did Vico oppose Cartesianism?What was Bentham's Principle of Utility?Who was Jacques Lacan?Was Newton an eccentric personality?Who was St. Teresa and what were her main ideas?Martin Heidegger Was Immanuel Kant an important figure of the Enlightenment?MICHEL DE MONTAIGNE PHENOMENOLOGYNative American Philosophy What are some of Aristotle's works and what are they about?Ordinary language philosophyWhat characterizes nineteenth century philosophy as a foundation for current philosophical thought?What was John Dewey's metaphysics?GENDER AND EARLY MODERN WOMEN PHILOSOPHERSWhat general philosophical problems does environmentalism pose?Charles Sanders Peirce What was Immanuel Kant's theory of the self?How do we know the One?What were the shared goals of the St. Louis Hegelians?What happened in analytic philosophy of science over the course of the twentieth century?How have second wave feminists addressed gender?What were the main themes and claims in classic African American literature?What were some of Newton's career accomplishments?How was Simone de Beauvoir influential as a feminist?What is phenomenalism?Has there been much progress in philosophy?How did the Islamic religion begin?What was Soren Kierkegaard's burning question?What is continental philosophy?What are some examples of the perplexities Maimonides set out in his Guide of the Perplexed?THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION What is ethical egoism?Who was Voltaire?Was Michel Foucault an existentialist?Who was Queen Christina and why was she important in Descartes' life?Who was Princess Elizabeth?Did Thomas Reid have his own ideas, in addition to saying why the empiricists were wrong?What question does deep ecology pose for philosophers?What was or is natural law?Who was Friedrich Schelling?Who was William of Ockam?MEDICINE AND PHILOSOPHYWhat are some other notable works by Montaigne?MaimonidesWhat is Peter Abelard known for in philosophy?Who was Johann Gottlieb Fichte?What are some other interesting facts about A.J. Ayer's life and career?Who was George Santayana?What was Spinoza's philosophical system?How did Pyrrhonic skepticism get its name?What was Ralph Barton Perry's realism?What did Arthur Schopenhauer mean by his acronym WELT?What did John Stuart Mill think about Jeremy Bentham's "pleasure principle"?Afro-centrism and African Philosophy How is environmental ethics a secular matter?What is Catherine MacKinnon's argument against pornography?What was new in metaphysics and epistemology after logical positivism?Nicolas Malebranche What did Augustine confess in Confessions?Other trends in new philosophyThe Scholastics How did Montaigne convey his ideas?Benedict de Spinoza SOCRATESDid Plato and Aristotle influence early Christian and medieval philosophy?What did Aquinas contribute to metaphysics in the non-religious sense?Who was Albertus Magnus?Who first came up with the concept of atoms?What was René Descartes' problem with the Inquisition?Postmodern philosophy What was Karl Popper's theory of falsification?What was Greek wisdom?Did Asclepigenia suffer the same fate as Hypatia?Who was Hypatia of Alexandria?NEW PHILOSOPHYWhat was Robert Boyle's atomic theory?What were Voltaire's main contributions to philosophy?NEOPLATONISM What is analytic philosophy?NINETEENTH CENTURY PHILOSOPHYHow is Confucianism relevant to contemporary Western philosophy?What were the main facts about Whewell's life?What were some of John Stuart Mill's achievements?How were virtue ethics rediscovered in analytic philosophy?What did philosophers after Parmenides assert about the nature of appearance?Who was Jules Henri Poincare?What are some key facts about Charles Peirce's career and life?What are Afro-centrism and the African Diaspora?How did Sir Thomas More become a martyr?René Descartes What did Aquinas think about the soul?Who were some important women philosophers from antiquity?Who was Aspasia of Miletus?Who is Jerry Fodor?What were the main ideas of the scientific revolution?What are some interesting facts about William James' life?Ralph Barton Perry Soren Kierkegaard What was Confucius' influence?How did Ralph Waldo Emerson define transcendentalism?What is French feminism?FRANCIS BACON AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONHow was skepticism related to the scientific revolution?Has Nicolaus Copernicus' theory withstood the test of time?Why was Pythagoras important?Analytic ethicsWhat is the connection between religion and philosophy?Who were the Pre-Socratics?What was evolutionary thought like in America during the nineteenth century?Who was Arthur Schopenhauer?What other continental traditions are new to Western philosophy?What was Ayn Rand's philosophy of objectivism?Why did philosophy start in ancient Greece?What is truth-functional logic?Early american philosophical strainsWhat did Wollstonecraft claim on behalf of women?Ludwig Wittgenstein Why was Averroés considered important by other philosophers?Who was Thomas Hobbes?What was Sigmund Freud's oedipal theory?What is the "problem of the criterion" as put forth by Montaigne?Critical Theorists Who were some of Robert Boyle's scientific influences?What was Alfred North Whitehead's process philosophy?What is the story of Descartes' life?COUNTER-ENLIGHTENMENT FIGURESWhat was Wilfred Sellars' idea of functionalism?WILLIAM WHEWELLWho was Martin Heidegger?Who was Thomas Aquinas and what made him known as the greatest medieval philosopher?Why was John Stuart Mill important?Who were the main Social Darwinists?What were the ideas of some of the humanist existentialists?What are some results of experimental philosophy?What was Gottlob Frege's landmark insight about meaning?What was Friedrich Nietzsche's idea of a "gay science?"Who was Gilbert Ryle and what was his thesis?What was Jean-François Lyotard's view of postmodernism?Who was Soren Kierkegaard?Who were the key players in the theories and practice of them in the scientific revolution?Were Pyrrhonic skeptics anxious about the impossibility of knowledge?New England Transcendentalists Who was Edmund Husserl?How did Derrida explain deconstructionism in his Of Grammatology?The Vienna CircleWhat were Auguste Comte's sociological ideas?Who was David Hume?Was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon a friend of Karl Marx?Who was Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach?What is known about Leibniz's life?NINETEENTH CENTURY EMPIRICISM What was Marsilio Ficino's contribution to the spirit of the Renaissance?What was Martin Heidegger's theory of time?What was the analytic/synthetic distinction and why did C.I. Lewis need it?What is a meme?What were Wollstonecraft's main political ideas?Josiah Royce Did nineteenth-century American philosophers directly take up evolution?Edmund Husserl WOMEN PHILOSOPHERS IN ANCIENT GREECE AND ROMEWhat was the intellectual merit of de Sade's endeavors?What were Wollstonecraft's theoretical innovations?What was Ayn Rand's virtue of selfishness?What were John Dewey's main philosophical ideas?How are psychology and philosophy related?How does Plato define a "just city" in his Republic?What are some facts about Maurice Merleau-Ponty's life and career?What is the "problem of universals"?Who is Jürgen Habermas?What was the reaction of Pre-Socratic philosophers to Parmenides' monism?What were Arthur Schopenhauer's main ideas?What was Henry David Thoreau's philosophical contribution?What is distinctive about the practice of analytic philosophy?What is sense knowledge?What is Sufism?What did Friedrich Nietzsche mean by "the birth of tragedy?"Did Boyle's materialism mean he was an atheist?Was John Stuart Mill a socialist or a capitalist?What are the two types of ideas according to George Berkeley?Was Montaigne the only skeptical philosopher to reason in this Pyrrhonnic way?What is philosophical about feminist philosophy?What were John Stuart Mill's views on marriage?What is Pierre-Simon Laplace's theory of probability?What advances were made during the nineteenth century concerning the philosophy of mathematics and logic?What was Richard Rorty's concept of philosophy?What was Arthur Schopenhauer's influence?Did Anselm face objections to his ontological argument?How did Descartes solve his evil demon hypothesis?What is the linguistic turn?What is ethical (or moral) relativism?What was W.V.O. Quine's attack on the analytic-synthetic distinction?Noam ChomskyOnce the idols are eliminated what did this allow us to do, according to Bacon?What were the common themes of the Enlightenment?Who were the philosophes?What was Aristotle's theory of the virtues?What is ancient cynicism?What was Francis Bacon's New Atlantis about?What were some of Leibniz's original contributions to philosophy?What happened to Locke during his life and what were some of his important publications?What was The Dial?What are some key events for which Socrates is often remembered?What was Immanuel Kant's Copernican Revolution?What is the philosophy of biology?How did the facts of Wollstonecraft's life obscure her work?Who were the stoics and what did they believe?What was philosophical about the thought of Desiderius Erasmus?What was Plato's Academy?StructuralistsWho were the early Neoplatonists?What did William Whewell mean by the sensationalistic school?What were Leo Strauss' main politically relevant ideas?Philosophy of languageWhat are Venn diagrams?What did Henry Sidgwick contribute to moral theory?What is Latin American philosophy?What are academic and Pyrrhonic skepticism?What was Enlightenment philosophy?What is existentialism?Who was Bernard Bosanquet?ANCIENT PHILOSOPHYWhat was Bacon's influence?Who were the St. Louis Hegelians?What is anarchism?Who was René Descartes?Who was Nelson Goodman?INTUITIONISM Who was Edith Stein?What was Thomas Kuhn's paradigm theory?Who was W.V.O. Quine?Which of the other Enlightenment thinkers were most directly relevant to philosophy?What are these various specializations and subfields of philosophy?What was Robert Nozick's own political theory?THE CAMBRIDGE PLATONISTS Was Alexius Meinong serious about nonexistent objects?What were the ideas of the main religious existentialists?Who was Charles Sanders Peirce?What was most important about Aristotle's work?What is known about Aristotle's life?What was Immanuel Kant's moral system?What is verificationism?Friedrich Hegel What are the main themes and influences in philosophy of technology?What does philosophy have to do with ordinary life?Did Rousseau support a free society?Who was Thomas Kuhn?Who was Walter Benjamin?What was Vico's cyclical idea of history?What was meant by "reason" during the Enlightenment?What were Herbert Spencer's ideas about evolution?How are dogs like cynics?What was Noam Chomsky's argument against behaviorism?Who was Jean-Paul Sartre?Who was Alan Mathison Turing?What are some details of the Marquis de Sade's life?What did Thrasymachus think about the concept of justice?Who was al-Ghazali?Who was Moritz Schlick?What was Johann Gottlieb Fichte's political philosophy?What was Anaxagoras' idea about the Mind?Was Thomas More serious about his utopian vision?How did political events after the decline of Greece change philosophy?What are the philosophical issues about racial identity?Why did Martin Heidegger claim that existentialism was not a type of humanism?What was new about Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's thought?What were William Whewell's main ideas?How did Denton Jacques Snider interpret Friedrich Hegel?John LockeWhat is Buddhism?Who was C.I. Lewis?Who was Karl Popper?Who was G.E. Moore?How did falsification work according to Karl Popper?What was some of the Catholic response to Martin Luther's dogmatism?What was nineteenth century intuitionism?Who was Auguste Comte?What was Hume's problem of induction?What was St. Augustine's role at the beginning of medieval philosophy?What did George Berkeley think of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities?Is philosophy only found in the West?Who was Pierre-Simon Laplace?Who was Claude Lévi-Strauss?Who was Josiah Royce?Other continental traditionsWhat makes the concerns of these historically disadvantaged groups part of philosophy?What are some important facts about Johann Gottlieb Fichte's career?What was Williams James' main contribution to psychology?Environmental philosophy What was Reichenbach's theory of logical empiricism?What were William James' main pragmatic interests?What did Prodicus tell his audiences?Who is Hélène Cixous?Did all nineteenth-century thinkers believe in progress?Who is Luce Irigaray?How did ideas about life change when it came to the philosophy of science?Who was Ralph Barton Perry?What were Georg Simmel's thoughts on fashion and money?Why are LBGT studies and queer theory part of philosophy now?Who was Leo Strauss?How were Ludwig Feuerbach's ideas received?Why was Montaigne important?How did George Berkeley's theory of vision relate to the concept of matter and physical existence?How did William Whewell think consilience, coherence, and predictions should be applied to test theories?Who was Emil Durkheim?Who was Charles Hartshorne?What were the goals of activist second wave feminists?How is sociology related to philosophy?Who was Rousseau?How well were Ockam's ideas first received?What is early modern philosophy?How is Christian philosophy different from Christian theology?What were Plato's main ideas as presented and developed in his early dialogues?Why has there been a third wave in feminism?AUGUSTE COMTEWas nineteenth century evolutionary thought connected to ideas of progress?Pragmatism and process philosophyHow did Nicolaus Copernicus change the world?What influence did Ludwig Feuerbach have on others?What did Simone de Beauvoir mean by an ethics of ambiguity?What was new in Hume's views on religion?How and why was Locke's idea of the social contract different from Hobbes'?Why was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon against women's rights?PLATOWas Aquinas able to solve the conflict between faith and reason?Were all eighteenth-century thinkers in agreement with Enlightenment themes?How did Leibniz define his principles?How did William James express his own will to believe?Who was Henry Sidgwick?Who was Jacques Derrida?What kind of a materialist was Ludwig Feuerbach?What was Auguste Comte's positivism?Who were the scholastics?Franz Brentano Why aren't there any women philosophers from ancient Greece and Rome who became well known?What was Friedrich Hegel's system?What was Alexius Meinong's theory of value?What were Ralph Waldo Emerson's requirements for a scholar?How was Giambattista Vico a unique philosopher of his time?What have been the major trends in Latin American philosophy?What did Proclus contribute to Neoplatonism?Who was Paul Feyerabend?Did Galileo contribute more than a defense of Copernicus to science and philosophy?What have been the main themes in philosophical feminism?Who were the Sophists?EARLY MODERN PHILOSOPHYHow did the St. Louis Hegelians apply their philosophy?When discussing religious belief, which did Montaigne consider to be more important: reason or faith?What is experimental philosophy?What roles did others play in furthering Francis Bacon's ideas?What is Roman stoicism?What did Anne Conway's physical pain have to do with her philosophy and religion?Who is Daniel C. Dennett?How did Ptolemy's view of the solar system become the accepted theory?Why is gender an important topic in studies of early modern philosophy?What was the importance of Jewish philosophy in medieval thought?How was G.E. Moore a realist?What was C.I. Lewis' form of pragmatism?What is the difference between ethics and morals?Did the Eastern philosophers interact much with the St. Louis Hegelians?What was interesting about Voltaire's life?Who was Georg Simmel?Process Philosophy Who were the main defenders of sense knowledge at the beginning of modern science?Was there only one kind of religious life for Soren Kierkegaard?Is Jürgen Habermas' work wholly theoretical?NEOPLATONISM THROUGH THE RENAISSANCEWhat was Locke's solution to the Cartesian mind-body problem?What is the problem caused by intersectionality?Who was William Hamilton?THE SOPHISTSWhat are some of the major philosophical arguments made in Meditations?What is Marxism?Did Sigmund Freud analyze himself?How did other philosophers and scientists react to Pierre Gassendi's views?Early twentieth century analytic philosophyWhat was John Dewey's theory of art?Jean-Paul Sartre Who was Plotinus?What is mysterianism?What is philosophy of technology?What was Paul Feyerabend's view of science?Who was H.P. Grice?Is philosophy just the beliefs and theories of individual philosophers?What was unusual about Hume's theory of the emotions?How are existentialism and phenomenology historically related?What was the Native American philosophical tradition?Richard Rorty Why do some people consider Martin Heidegger to be an existentialist?What was Plato's view of love?How did Johannes Kepler's career develop?What is analytic ethics?What kind of a Marxist was Jean-Paul Sartre?Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach How did Neoplatonism become popular?What was Gilles Deleuze like as a person?What was individually noteworthy about Diderot, d'Alembert, Holbach, and Montesquieu?What are primary qualities and secondary qualities?How did Nicolas Malebranche react to Descartes' mind-body problem?Who was William Whewell?Herbert SpencerWhat is the connection between philosophy of mind and philosophy of language in analytic philosophy?Was anything absolutely wrong in Aristotle's view?Who were the important philosophers of middle stoicism?How did Peter Lombard answer his question of whether God was the cause of evil and sin?Who was Galileo?How did Hilary Putnam agree with W.V.O. Quine on the analytic-synthetic distinction?Why were "ideas" important to Berkeley?What was Alexius Meinong's psychological theory?Who was Amos Bronson Alcott?What is Jerry Fodor's modular theory of mind?What topics are addressed in Plato's middle works?What are some highlights of Jane Addams' life that led her to found Hull House?For what is Heraclitus still famous?AnarchismWho was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon?GREEK PRE-SOCRATICSWhat are the issues addressed by Latino-Latina/Hispanic-American philosophy?What were Alcmaeon's innovations in medicine?What is the big problem with Hume's reduction of the self to perceptions?Why was Pyrrho important?Did women object to this negative view of them in the seventeenth century?MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY Is there or has there been an African philosophy?What is the philosophical issue regarding biological race?What happens after absolute knowledge is attained?Who was Ferdinand de Saussure?What was Edmund Husserl's phenomenological method?How have Japanese, Chinese, and Indian philosophy recently entered Anglo-American philosophy?How did the Church react to Galileo's theories?What was Betham's main proposal for prison reform?What was Friedrich Schelling's major thesis?Who was Wilfred Sellars?What were Friedrich Hegel's main ideas?What did Thomas Reid believe about free will?What was William Whewell's theory of induction?What is the school of thought of Buddhism?George Herbert Mead What were Hippocrates' accomplishments and influence?What was Arthur Schopenhauer's moral system?Who was John Wisdom?What was skepticism?Who was Alain Locke?African American Philosophy Logical positivismWho were the "Right" and "Left" Hegelians?What was Thomas Hobbes life like?How did Locke use natural law to construct a theory of government?What is the difference between critical theory and structuralism?Why have existentialist philosophers claimed Dostoyevsky as one of their own?Who was Paracelsus?Was Jonathan Edwards merciful toward sinners?Why did Pierre Gassendi promote mitigated skepticism?What did Descartes mean by "clear and distinct ideas"?What was Berkeley's answer to whether a tree falling in the forest makes a sound?In what way was St. Teresa of Avila a Renaissance figure?Who was Alfred Tarski?How did John Stuart Mill define the difference between higher and lower pleasures?For what is Luce Iragary most famous?What is Native American philosophy?What needed to be reconciled between Carl Popper and Thomas Kuhn?Alexius Meinong Who was John Dewey?How was John Duns Scotus' work different from Thomas Aquinas'?What was mitigated or moderate skepticism as explained by Pierre Gassendi?What was the purpose of Descartes' Meditations?What was anti-Aristotelianism?Why did philosophers become interested in mathematics, geometry, and logic, during the nineteenth century?Who was Tenskwatawa?Other Logicians How was Hume a man of contradictions?Have some philosophers criticized consequentialism?What is a syllogism?How did feminist epistemology develop?What was Edmund Husserl's doctrine of intentionality?Why are Immanuel Kant's epistemology and metaphysics transcendental?What did Emil Durkheim contribute to the study of suicide?Who was Imre Lakatos?What was Aristotle's main contribution to Western philosophy?Who was Robert Boyle?What did Edward Gibbon contribute?Who was Margaret Fuller?Did Plato change his philosophical theory of forms?Philosophy of scienceWhat was logical atomism?What was Robert Nozick's response to John Rawls?Maurice Merleau-Ponty What is Confucianism?How did Imre Lakatos' research program reconcile Popper and Kuhn's work?THE PHILOSOPHES Latin American Philosophy How did Alan Sokal attack postmodernism?Did Hume believe that we have free will?What were Emil Durkheim's main ideas?What did Ralph Waldo Emerson mean by the "over-soul"?What happened that affected empiricism in the nineteenth century?How were Locke's ideas about substance related to his theory of knowledge?What did the dialogue between the Pre-Socratics reveal about their philosophy?Who was R. Hare?Did Plato change his philosophy as he grew older?Who was A.J. Ayer?How did Anaximander seek to revise Thales' philosophy?What is feminist reclamation?What was the goal of the encyclopedists?What was Gottlob Frege's main innovation in the philosophy of logic?JOHANNES KEPLER'S INFLUENCEWhat were the important themes in early twentieth century analytic philosophy?What did George Berkeley think of matter, extension, and other mainstays secured by René Descartes and refined by John Locke?Has science removed all of the mystery of life?What was G.E. Moore's common sense philosophy?ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHYMARY WOLLSTONECRAFT AND WILLIAM GODWINWhat was Martin Heidegger's question concerning technology?RENAISSANCE HUMANISMHow was Plotinus' system of thought expressed in the Enneads?What was Immanuel Kant's second formulation of the categorical imperative?What was Scottish Common Sense Philosophy?Other american philosophies What were the important ideas of the Sophists?Why did Heraclitus disagree with Pythagoras about the essence of life?What was Empedocles' idea about the four elementsWho was Friedrich Engels?How did skepticism further arguments for faith and mysticism?Who were the New England Transcendentalists?What was Richard Rorty's view of truth?Was Ralph Waldo Emerson an abolitionist?What were the general ideas about women that were held by people in the seventeenth century?Who was Francisco Suârez?What is American philosophy?Who were some female Pythagoreans?HELLENISTIC AND ROMAN PHILOSOPHYWhat is feminist philosophy of science?Was Descartes a Cartesian?Is Hegel's system purely abstract?Did Aristotle think that morality had a purpose or "final cause"?What was al-Kindi's main contribution to philosophy?What is Fodor's language of thought hypothesis?How was Newton's system received?What has been Arne Naess' philosophical influence?What are some details of David Hume's life and career?Who was Pierre Gassendi?Did the study of some of the sciences get their start in philosophy?Who was J.L. Austin?How were alchemists regarded by their peers?What was John Stuart Mill's view of logic and scientific methodology?What are some important facts about Martin Heidegger's life?What was disturbing about David Hume's analysis of causation?What was John Stuart Mill's formulation of utilitarianism?How did Copernicus change the Ptolemaic system?What world facts inform postmodernism?What are some key facts about Edmund Husserl's life and career?Who is Ruth Barcan Marcus?What was Spinoza's philosophical goal?What did Paracelsus contribute to alchemy?What is philosophy of film?What is philosophy?What were the main ideas of the Pre-Socratics?What were the main elements of Newton's scientific system and what did they have to do with God?What are the Pyrrhonic tropes?Was Copernicus' new theory purely scientific?Fyodor DostoyevskyHow did Mary Astell's life affect her written work?What was Immanuel Kant's proof of God's existence?How and why did Jewish and Islamic philosophy become part of the scholastic tradition?Who was Leibniz?Other ExistentialistsHow Did G.E. Moore develop his common sense philosophy?Who was Michel Foucault?Who was Hans Reichenbach?Which of these new philosophies are fads and which will last?ARISTOTLE Who was Alfred North Whitehead?What was Mary Astell's contribution to early modern philosophy?Analytic political philosophyWho was Jean-François Lyotard?What have been the two main subjects of Western philosophy?How were Joseph-Marie de Maistre's ideas similar to Edmund Burke's?What was Alasdair Maclntyre's contribution to virtue ethics?Who was Isaiah Berlin?What was the relevance of Plato's Laws to Plotinus and Gallienus?What was A.J. Ayer's version of logical positivism?What were W.V.O. Quine's most influential ideas?Who was Peter Kropotkin?Gottfried Wilhelm LeibnizWhat was Boyle's method of transdiction?Did early Neoplatonism include women philosophers?What was Jean-Paul Sartre's basis for his idea of freedom?What are some of the current issues in Native American philosophy?Why did John Stuart Mill distrust majority rule?St. Louis HegeliansWhat was Martin Heidegger's theory of space?What was William Hamilton's philosophy of the conditioned?Why were the Sophists important philosophically?What were Soren Kierkegaard's "stages of life's way"?Who were the philosophical rationalists?In what ways did William Whewell disagree with Immanuel Kant?What did Soren Kierkegaard deem his main vocation in life?What did Friedrich Nietzsche mean by power?What are the distinctive methods of postmodern philosophy?Was Christianity the only religious influence on philosophy after the ancient period?Who was Louis Althusser?From what did Vico believe the cycles of history originated?What were Plato's dialogues?What was the Enlightenment?How did Anaximenes revise the theories of Anaximander?What did Zarathustra say in Friedrich Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra?Who were the natural philosophers?Would marriage have changed the emotional lives of seventeenth century philosophers?Islam's InfluenceFrancisco SuArezWho was Jeremy Bentham?What were the main original ideas that were important to Johann Gottlieb Fichte's philosophy?Was military invasion of Europe part of the religious practice of Islam during the medieval period?JOHN STUART MILLWhere does the human mind fit into Hegel's idealism?What are John Stuart Mill's progressive ideas in The Subjection of Women?Jacques Derrida and Deconstructionism How was A.J. Ayer a phenomenalist?Why has Noam Chomsky's theory of language been so influential?Who was P.F. Strawson?Who is Angela Davis?What did Hippias contribute to learning?What were Leibniz's views on embryology?How was Jonathan Swift opposed to Enlightenment values?How is philosophy different from other intellectual pursuits?What were Voltaire's religious views?What happened to the founders of the St. Louis Philosophical Society?How were Friedrich Schilling's views of culture aesthetic?What is ethical subjectivism?How did Pyrrhonic skepticism affect early modern natural philosophy?What did Gorgias say about thought versus existence?Why was the single status of early modern men of science and philosophy important?What reforms did Cesare Beccaria advocate?Did Malebranche lead an exciting life?Other Important Medieval PhilosophersWhat was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's lasting influence?How did James Martineau make Immanuel Kant's metaphysics religious?What are some of Peter Singer's views?What is distinctive about analytical political philosophy?What is Julia Kristeva's idea of the abject and the nature of women?How did Augustine support the theology of the Church with philosophy?What is the difference between a moral system and a moral theory?What is a scientific revolution according to Thomas Kuhn?In a nutshell, what did Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels write in their philosophy?What was John Rawls' theory of justice?Buddhism and ConfucianismWhat is German idealism?What was Bernard Bosanquet's idealist doctrine?What did St. Anselm of Canterbury begin?Can the problem of intersectionality be solved?Who was Mikhail Bakunin?What were the new logic and four types of idols made famous by Francis Bacon's Novum Organum?What was Protagoras famous for?Truth-Functional Logic and Logical Atomism How can there be "new" philosophy?What was Berkeley's critique of Newtonian science?How did Henri Bergson relate real time to free will?Did Gottlob Frege succeed in reducing mathematics to logic?Who was Henri Bergson?What is non-Euclidian geometry?Which early American philosophical strains were most influential?How did Edmund Husserl distinguish between two types of the self?What was Pico Della Mirandola known for?What are the highlights of Alfred North Whitehead's career?What is pragmatism?How is environmentalism related to racial and international studies?What did the religious and humanist existentialists contribute?How do the Churchlands account for perceptions of meaning?Who was Sagoewatha?What are the main Pre-Socratic texts?Arthur Schopenhauer Did Auguste Comte believe in altruism?Jerry FodorWhat was Francico Suârez's view of metaphysics?What are the Socratic paradoxes?What were Grotius' influential ideas about natural law?Who was James Martineau?EXISTENTIALISMWhat is eliminative materialism?What was Philippa Foot's contribution to virtue ethics?What was Ludwig Wittgenstein's private language argument?Who was Frederick Douglass?Johann Gottlieb Fichte How did Max Weber connect Protestantism to capitalism?How did Spinoza's system solve Cartesianism?What are the roots of St. Anselm's ontological argument?What was Ludwig Wittgenstein's major insight concerning ordinary language and philosophy?Who were Gilles Deleuze and Pierre-Félix Guattari?What was Ralph Barton Perry's theory of value?Bertrand Russell Who were the Cambridge Neoplatonists?W.V.O. Quine Who was Hilary Putnam?Epistemology and metaphysics after logical positivismHas anyone succeeded in refuting Anselm's ontological argument?What was George Santayana's ontology?GERMAN IDEALISMWho was Simone de Beauvoir?What is the Tao ?What have Western philosophers recognized in Buddhism?Did Socrates really exist?What was the reaction to Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy?Why is the unity or commonality of women important?CONTINENTAL PHILOSOPHYWhat religious issues are involved in environmental thought, pro and con?Why was Thomas Reid important?THE ENLIGHTENMENT PERIODWhat aspects of Dostoevsky's life influenced his deep interest in human difficulty?Jane Addams How did the Pyrrhonic skeptics alleviate dogmatism?Why was John Locke important?What were the main philosophical aspects of the scientific revolution?Who was Jonathan Edwards?THOMAS REID AND JEREMY BENTHAM Who was George Herbert Mead?What was Leibniz's monadology?What was original about Locke's thoughts concerning education?What was new about the thinking of the Pre-Socratics?How did Friedrich Nietzsche's life presage his philosophy?What was Hilary Putnam's neo-pragmatism?Who is Noam Chomsky?What are some key facts about Edmund Burke's life?John Dewey How did lamblichus practice Neoplatonism?Is there a sharp distinction between Enlightenment philosophers and other intellectuals?What was John Stuart Mill's final assessment of religious belief?JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAUWho was Nicolas Malebranche?Who was Max Weber?Was Luce Irigaray's Speculum of the Other Woman socially relevant?What, besides ethics, is philosophical about environmentalism?Who was William Godwin?Who was Gottlob Frege?What is environmentalism?How did medicine progress after Hippocrates?How is Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy both stoic and Neoplatonic?Who was Friedrich Nietzsche?Who was Avicenna?What was Spinoza's legacy?MATERIALISM, MARXISM, AND ANARCHISTSC.I. Lewis More French Postmodern Philosophers How important was Joseph-Marie de Maistre?Who was Boethius?What do we know for sure about Plato's life?How did Hull House fulfill pragmatist ideals of knowledge?How did Michel Foucault's philosophy develop?Who was the Marquis de Sade?What was Neoplatonism?SKEPTICISM AND NATURAL PHILOSOPHY Who are some Dark Ages philosophers who came after St. Augustine?Who was Rudolf Carnap?What is Epicureanism?How did René Descartes' philosophical work begin?How did William James come to develop pragmatism?What is the Socratic method?Who was Ernest Nagel?How did William Harvey discover the closed circulatory system?What is the origin of materialism, Marxism, and anarchism in the modern era?What is fideism and what does it have to do with what Montaigne demonstrated about skepticism?Friedrich Nietzsche What was Social Darwinism?What were Maimonides' main intellectual contributions?IMMANUEL KANT What were Edmund Burke's political background and beliefs?Where does the soul fit into Plotinus' system of Platonic entities?What is consequentialism?What are Aristotle's 10 categories of existing things?What were Bentham's life and career like?What was David Hume's great ambition in philosophy?What was The One?
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