What was Peter Lombard's contribution to medieval philosophy?
Peter Lombard (c. 1095-1160) was an Italian theologian who wrote the Book of Sentences. He was educated in Bologna, Reims, and Paris, and he taught at Notre Dame, becoming a canon there from 1144 to 1145. The Book of Sentences is structured around important theological questions and subjects: for example, "Is God the cause of Evil and Sin?" Peter first set out the question or issue, related what the position of the Church Fathers on it would have been, and then proposed his own answer or resolution.
How did Peter Lombard answer his question of whether God was the cause of evil and sin?
God is of course good and has a good nature. Out of this good nature, God created an angel. This angel became evil after God created him and passed his evil on to man. Evil in man resulted in sin. God was therefore not the first cause of either human evil or sin. (Lombard's explanation is similar to how we would explain how a good parent has a bad child—at some point the creation or offspring is morally responsible for itself and Lombard located that point originally in an angel.)
Lombard (c. 1095-1160) wrote about this and other issues in his four-volume Book of Sentences (1145-1151) that soon became a standard text for theological training that was in use until the mid 1200s. Others would begin with his work and then develop their own ideas on its basis.
What is Peter Abelard known for in philosophy?
Peter Abelard (1079-1149) was the French theologian who wrote Theologia Christiana, an attempt to use logic for explaining christian dogmas. His expertise in logic drew students from all over Europe. He was the first scholastic to write about Aristotle's On Interpretation, together with Boethius' (480-c. 525) commentary on this work.
Abelard made a distinction between the meaning of an expression—what it names—and the idea in the mind of a
Peter Abelard attempted to use logical arguments to explain Christian dogma (Art Archive).
What is the romantic story involving Peter Abelard and Eloise?
The story of Peter Abelard (1079-1149) and Eloise chronicles one of the most poignant romantic relationships in the Western tradition. It was referred to in the 1999 movie about a doorway that leads into the head of the actor John Malkovich (Being John Malkovich in which John Cusack's character refers to Peter and Heloise in the salacious dialogue of one of his marionette shows.) Well before this movie, cole Porter wrote: "As Abelard said to Eloise, Don't forget to drop a line to me, Please."
In real life, Eloise had written to Abelard: "The name of wife may seem more sacred or more worthy but sweeter to me will always be the word lover, or, if you will permit me, that of concubine or whore."
Abelard, at the peak of his fame and popularity, assumed the position of tutor to Eloise. They fell in love, and he is said to have seduced her. She became pregnant, and they were secretly married. Eloise's uncle discovered the whole affair. claiming to be incensed by the secrecy of their marriage, he publicly denounced Abelard and then had him castrated. Peter himself recounted these events in his autobiographical work, Historia Calamitatum.
Abelard told Eloise to become a nun and he himself became a monk. They carried on a correspondence of passionate love letters. Eloise was more enamored of Abelard than he was of her. Although castration was not an unusual punishment for the kind of betrayal of trust committed by Abelard, he was humiliated by his maiming for the rest of his life, and more or less retreated into his studies. Eloise became the highly successful abbess of a convent. Peter and Eloise were eventually buried together.
speaker who uses the expression. He did not think that words signify the images in the minds of their speakers. Meanings are what true or false sentences say or signify, which lies outside the minds of their speakers. The distinctions in Abelard's innovative philosophical theory of reference remain relevant to contemporary philosophers of language.