Other american philosophies
What are the other American philosophies?
The term here refers to philosophies that represent groups in the Americas that have been politically subordinate to the groups historically represented by the U.S. government. These philosophies themselves have long histories in their cultures of origin, but their concerns have recently become part of Anglo-American mainstream academic philosophy. As a result, new philosophical subfields emerged toward the end of the twentieth century: African American, Native American, and Latin American philosophy. Each of these traditions has developed as a form of cultural criticism, and insofar as its analyses of oppression would not immediately be recognized as such by perpetrators, each is a distinctive critical theory.
What makes the concerns of these historically disadvantaged groups part of philosophy?
When philosophers take up these concerns, as many have in recent decades, they become part of the official curriculum of philosophy in higher education. In addition, the issues raised require the methods of both analytic and continental philosophy to resolve. Some of these issues are ethical and others are directly related to political philosophy and public policy, both of which are now part of the canon of contemporary philosophy.
African American Philosophy
What is African American philosophy?
African American philosophy has had at least three periods: in the nineteenth century period it is usually associated with abolitionism, most notably in the writings of Frederick Douglass (c. 1818-1895); in the early twentieth century, it is distinguished by the work of Alain Locke (1885-1954) and W.E.B. Dubois. Not until the 1970s did African American philosophy begin to function as a subfield within academic philosophy, and that was the beginning of its third period, which continues until the present day.
Aside from recognizing historically overlooked thinkers and ideas, African American philosophy has focused on identity, racism and its remedies, questions of reparations for black chattel slavery before the U.S. Civil War, and the question of whether there is a scientific foundation for the division of human beings into biological races.
A skeletal list of core classic readings in African American philosophy would include: Alexander Crummell's (1819— 1898) Destiny and Race: Selected Writings, 1840-1898 (2000), Frederick Douglass' A Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave (1845), W.E.B. DuBois' (1868—1963) The Souls of Black Folk and Dusk of Dawn (1945), Alain Locke's (1886—1954) The New Negro (1925), Booker T. Washington's (1886— 1915) Up from Slavery: An Autobiography (1901), and Martin Luther King's (1929—
Among the many luminaries of African American philosophy was W.E.B. Dubois, a civil rights activist, historian, sociologist, and Pan-Africanist who dedicated his life to solving the problem of racism (Library of Congress).
Which important books helped create late-twentieth-century African American philosophy?
An abbreviated core bibliography would include the following books: Kwame Anthony Appiah and Amy Gutmann, Color Conscious: The Political Morality of Race (1996); Bernard Boxill, Blacks and Social Justice (1992); Angela Davis, Women, Race, and Class (1983); Lewis R. Gordon, Bad Faith and Antiblack Racism (1996); Jacquelyn Grant, White Women's Christ and Black Women's Jesus (1989); Leonard Harris, ed., Philosophy Born of Struggle: Anthology of Afro-American Philosophy from 1917 (1983); Bill E. Lawson, ed., The Underclass Question (1992); Tommy L. Lott, ed., Subjugation and Bondage (1998); Howard McGary, Race and Social Justice (1998); Charles W. Mills, The Racial Contract (1997); Michele M. Moody-Adams, Morality, Culture and Philosophy: Fieldwork in Familiar Places (1997); Greg Moses, Revolution of Conscience: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Philosophy of Nonviolence (1997); Albert Mosley, Affirmative Action: Social Justice or Unfair Preference? (1996); Lucius Outlaw, On Race and Philosophy (1996); Rodney C. Roberts, ed. Injustice and Rectification (2002); Laurence Thomas, Vessels of Evil: American Slavery and the Holocaust (1993); Cornel West, Prophesy Deliverance! An Afro-American Revolutionary Christianity (1982); George Yancy, editor, African-American Philosophers, 17 Conversations (1998); and Naomi Zack, Thinking about Race(2006).
1968) A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. (1986).