Preparation Methods

Conventionally, there are four major methods of nanoliposome manufacture (Demirci, Caglar et al., 2017):

Thin Film Hydration

It is based on the aqueous rehydration of thin phospholipid films which have been initially dissolved in an appropriate organic solvent (e.g., chloroform) and then subjected to solvent evaporation. Afterward, the dehydrated film is being hydrated in an appropriate buffer solution that contains the hydrophilic solutes, which is also instrumental for the encapsulation of the solutes. Generally, extrusion membranes or other homogenizers are utilized in order to generate ULVs, and preferably SUVs in this technique.

Solvent Injection Method

During the application of this technique, lipids are initially solubilized in an appropriate solvent, possibly ethanol, and ethanolic solutions are directly administered into aqueous systems where liposomes are formed.

Detergent Removal Method

This method utilizes dialysis technique in the removal of surfactants from surfactant—phospholipid mixed micelles and leads to their transformation to liposomes.

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