Reverse Phase Method

In this technique, polar lipids are solubilized in an appropriate organic solvent and a water-in-oil emulsion is manufactured. Formation of liposomes will be preceded by the removal of the solvent, formation of a gel phase and aqueous dispersion.

It should be noted that after preparing liposomal structures by these methods, some types of high-energy devices such as a microfluidizer or an ultrasound probe should be applied to further decrease the size of liposomes into nanoscale capsules.

The techniques utilized in liposome manufacture have been recently reviewed by Huang et al. (2014). In addition to the above conventional techniques, some novel and specialized methods have been presented in recent years, such as

  • • dual asymmetric centrifugation,
  • • membrane contactor technology,
  • • cross-flow filtration detergent depletion method,
  • • freeze-drying double-emulsion method,
  • • supercritical CO2 technologies,
  • • layer-by-layer deposition, and
  • • combinatorial (hybrid) methods.
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