Coronary Heart Disease

Coronary heart disease is generally shown in the patients with high levels of plasma cholesterol, very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), triglycerides, and hypertension. On the other hand, these patients generally have low levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Several researches showed that diets with high level of PUFAs tend to lower plasma cholesterol, VLDL, LDL, and triglycerides (Goh, Jumpsen, Ryan, & Clandinin, 1997). Additionally, higher HDL levels in plasma were also determined in different studies (Damsgaard et al., 2006; Ramprasath, Eyal, Zchut, & Jones, 2013; Sanders & Hinds, 1992). However, there are also several papers that reported no linkage between fish oils and PUFAs consumption, and plasma lipoproteins (Ramprasath et al., 2013). Therefore, conflicting results reported about fish oil and PUFAs consumption on plasma lipoproteins level thereby coronary heart disease. The differences between studies could be related to source of oil, type of fatty acids, doses, and test subject (animal, human, blood, etc.).

There could be also different effects of fish oils and PUFAs that resulted in low coronary heart disease. Indeed, Bouwens et al. (2009) showed intake of PUFAs changed the expression of 1040 genes in human blood and decreased expression of genes involved in inflammatory and atherogenesis- related pathways. Additionally, improved plaque stability, vascular permeability, and decreased endothelial activation thereby lower cardiovascular risk was determined (Cawood et al., 2010; Schiano et al., 2008). Consumption of PUFAs has been also effective in anticoagulation therapies by dose escalation of the drugs which is very important for the patients who have low response to these drugs (Lev et al., 2010).

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