Vitamin Fortification in Food Products
Many terms are used to outline the increased level of vitamins in food products, such as enrichment, standardization, and nitrification (Chalupa & Schroeder, 2016; Dasgupta, Ranjan, Mundra, Ramalingam, & Kumar, 2016). The addition of vitamins, fully or in part is required to compensate for the vitamin loss occurred in the processing stage. Some examples of vitamin fortification include vitamins A and D applied to skimmed milk powder, vitamin D incorporated in evaporated milk, vitamin B addition to the flour, and adding vitamin C to instant potato (Adolphe, Whiting, & Dahl, 2009; Gupta, 2015; Hilliam, 1996; Murphy, et al., 2001).
Fortification with vitamin is usually applied to the foods that are proper vehicles for the implemented vitamins. Moreover, the fortified food product must not necessarily have the used vitamin naturally. As an example, in many countries margarine is fortified with vitamin A when it is used as an alternative for butter (Solon, et al., 1996). Also, margarine contains higher levels of vitamin D in comparison to butter as it enhances the public health standards (Calvo & Whiting, 2013). Since 1998, almost all the cereal products have been fortified with folic acid in the United States but this nitrification procedure is voluntary in the United Kingdom (Assadpour, et al., 2016a).
Enrichment can be defined as the deliberate increase in the natural level of an agent to make a product beneficial and interesting for consumers. The addition of compounds to compensate for the loss of vitamins during the processing conditions is called standardization. Accordingly, milk and butter experience seasonal modifications in their vitamin A and D levels that are subsequently added to the formulations to keep the vitamin levels normal. Finally, nitrification is referred to the improvement of vitamins in fabricated foods that are purchased as meal substitutes (Ottaway, 2012).
In addition to the nutritional properties, vitamins impart other functional features in food products. As an illustration, (3-carotene induces a red-orange color when it is added to the food products. Currently, it has been applied to margarine, pasta, cakes, etc. Besides, vitamin E and C (ascorbyl palmitate type) can be implemented as antioxidants to stabilize fats and oils. Ascorbic acid is known for its reduction potential and it is responsible for the color of the cured meat, ham, and bacon during the fabrication process (Pearson & Gillett, 2012; Richards & Tatiyaborworntham, 2015).