These cyclic structures are originated from starch and include 6, 7, and 8 gluco- pyranose groups typically known as а, в, and y cyclodextrins. The internal cavities of these rings are about 0.6, 0.8, and 0.1 nm in diameter. Cyclodextrins are generated from the enzymatic conversion of various starches. Corn and potato starch are abundantly used for the production of cyclodextrins. Also, maize and wheat starches are great sources of amylose so that the produced cyclodextrins contain less amylopectin in their structure (Li, Chen, Gu, Chen, & Wu, 2014; Marques, 2010; Singh, Bharti, Madan, & Hiremath, 2010).

Heydari, Doostan, Khoshnood, and Sheibani (2016) incorporated vitamin B2 into cationic в-cyclodextrin structures to enhance the stability of vitamin B2 plus the controlled release of the entrapped vitamin. Results from the in vitro tests presented that by using this engineered system, initially a burst release occurs and after that, a slower release rate is observed. Liu and Zhang (2016) fabricated a host-guest structure by employing a в-cyclodextrin molecule to wrap vitamin D3 via the saturated aqueous vacuum drying technique. Through running orthogonal experiments, the optimum proportion of в-cyclodextrin to vitamin D3 was about 15:1 and the uptake of vitamin D3 enhanced dramatically in relation to the original form of the vitamin.

In another study, Vilanova and Solans (2015) prepared в-cyclodextrin molecules loaded with vitamin A palmitate without exerting organic solvents. They produced this system to enrich the edible solutions and enhance the stability of vitamin A palmitate in these cage molecules. Altogether, the surface activity of this intricate system depicted its possible application in emulsions as efficient stabilizers.

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