Carotenoids

Carotenoids consist of a broad range of fat-soluble pigments that are mostly available in nature (more than 600 plant-based pigments). Carotenoids are red, yellow, and orange organic pigments, found in the cells of plants in addition to their biosynthesis in bacteria and microalgae. Carotenoids are found

Natural Main Types Main Examples of Sources Colorants Color

Basic Structure

Anthocyanins

Cyanidin

Reddish-

orange

Apple, elderberry, blackberry, nectarine, plum, peach, red cabbage

Delphinidin

Purple,

blue

Grape, beans, eggplants

Pelargonidin

Orange

Strawberry, red radishes, some beans

Malvidin

Purple

Grape

Peonidin

Purplish-

red

Cranberries, blueberries, plums, grapes, cherries purple corn

Petunidin

Dark-red or purple

Grape, red berries

Carotenoids

f-Carotene

Yellow-

Carrot, egg, orange, chicken fat

Xanthophyll

orange

Vegetables, egg, chicken fat

Zeaxanthin

Yellow corn, egg, liver

Cryptoxanthin

Egg, yellow corn, orange

Physalien

Asparagus, berries

Bixin

Annatto seeds

Lycopene

Tomato, pink grapefruit, palm oil

Capsanthin

Paprika

Astaxanthin

Lobster, shrimp, salmon

(Continued)

Natural

Colorants

Main Types

Main

Color

Examples of Sources

Basic Structure

Heme

Hemoglobin

Myoglobin

Red- pink

Some good iron-based foods such as liver, red meat, shrimp, tofu, fortified breakfast cereals, oysters

Chlorophyll

Chlorophyll a

Green

Plants

Chlorophyll b

Chlorophyll c

Mostly plants

Chlorophyll d and f

Various algae

Cyanobacteria

in several dishes including eggs, fish, shell fish along with vegetables and fruits. The basic structure of carotenoids contains eight isoprenoid units. Carotenoids are classified into two major groups, namely, carotenes composed of hydrocarbons exposing a red-orange color and xanthophylls that contain oxygen within their structure and present the color yellow. (3-carotene and lycopene belong to carotenes and are water-insoluble compounds, while lutein and zeaxanthin are classified as xanthophylls (Britton, Liaaen-Jensen, & Pfander, 2009; Edge, McGarvey, & Truscott, 1997). The structures of several carotenoids, along with the foods containing these bioactive ingredients are indicated in Table 6.2. Carotenoids are normally stable ingredients against the harsh processing conditions as well as high temperature and pressure. Yet, the stability of carotenoids in foods is something that is not clear and may vary from stern loss to actual gain in carotenoid content during storage (Delgado-Vargas et al., 2000). The main factor which causes the degradation of carotenoids is oxidation. Oxygen is able to directly cleave the double bonds or to generate hydroperoxides during the lipid autoxidation process (Goodwin, 2012; Rao & Rao, 2007). Furthermore, carotenoids are proved to be efficient compounds for the prevention of a variety of lethal diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, eye problems, etc. (Johnson, 2002).

 
Source
< Prev   CONTENTS   Source   Next >