Solid Lipid Nanoparticles
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) developed via congealing process is considered as an ideal superseded for nanodispersions (Fig. 9.10). Fabrication of FeSO4—SLNs (Fig. 9.10) using combination of two techniques of ultrasoni- cation (1—7 min) and hot homogenization (1 — 10 min) was done by Hosny, Banjar, Hariri, and Hassan (2015). Bioavailable Fe—SLNs with particles size
FIGURE 9.10 The FeSO4-loaded SLNs fabrication using hot homogenization—ultrasonication.
Retrieved, from Hosny et al. (2015).
of 25 nm and EE of 92.3% were obtained by preparing an optimal formulation containing 3% Compritol 888 ATO, 1% lecithin, 3% Poloxamer 188 surfactant, and 0.2% dicetylphosphate. The produced Fe-SLNs could resolve the problems related to the consumption of similar commercial samples, for example, constipation disorder, blood existence in stool, and extensive dissimilarities in the Fe-uptake and bioaccessibility level (Hosny et al., 2015). A new technique of double emulsion solvent evaporation to produce FeSO4—SLNs based on stearic acid (SA) was before developed (Zariwala et al., 2013). An oily phase by dissolving SA into 1:1 mixture of dichloro- methane and methanol at 60° C was first made. The aqueous phase was prepared at temperature of 60°C by blending 10% PVA, 1%—3% FeSO4 and 0.1%—0.4% CS—HCl. Homogenization (21,000 rpm, 4 min) was done by mixing two immiscible phases at 60°C to reach a coarse microemulsion. Then, this emulsion was mixed with 1% PVA and finally rehomogenized for 7 min at the same temperature and stirring speed. In a hierarchy process, the resulted emulsion was evaporated, cooled, washed, freeze-dried (for 25 h at —40°C), and again dried (for 8 h at 20°C) in order to obtain Fe-loaded SLNs (300.3—495.1 nm). A rise in CS—HCl content in the studied range led to a significant improvement in Fe-EE of SLNs. Studying the in-vitro Fe-uptake based on the Caco-2 cell model showed that this parameter in Fe—SLN formulations was considerably more than the reference of FeSO4. Production of these exciting delivery systems containing Fe can improve bioavailability of this bioactive ingredient in the body.