APPLICATION OF ENCAPSULATED MINERALS IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY
With regard to the current disadvantages in fortifying food products with mineral salts through direct addition/mixing, application and incorporation of minerals encapsulated with a variety of coatings into food and drug formulations can provide unique benefits in developing novel functional products with improved physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. Majeed, Jamshaid Qazi, Safdar, and Fang (2013) pointed out that encapsulated mineral salts can have advantages, such as inhibition of interactions with substances present in the created matrix, discoloring avoidance, off-flavor reduction by masking of taste and smells, controlled release of the mineral components, perfect preservation in the production and storage processes, and improvement of the product’s physical properties.
During the recent two decades, most studies of researchers have been concentrated on the mineral fortification of dairy products and table salt with encapsulated minerals especially Fe, Ca, Zn, and I. Fe encapsulated forms used as core materials in fortifying dairy products are electrolytic-Fe, FeSO4, FeSO4 • 7H2O, C4H8FeN2O4, NH4Fe(SO4)2, and C6H10FeO6 (Table 9.3). Encapsulated forms of two Ca-salts of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) and calcium citrate (Ca3(C6H5O7)2) have also been applied to fortify soy-yogurt and soymilk (Table 9.3). The most popular encapsulated formulas of iodine and Fe for fortifying edible salts are KI and KIO3, and, C4H2FeO4 and FeSO4, respectively. Nevertheless, some attempts have been made to develop fortified bakery products based on flours encapsulated with minerals as suitable vehicles. Hence, current industrial progresses and new opportunities in applying encapsulated Fe, Ca, Zn, and I in key food products will be discussed henceforward with more details.