Fortification of Dairy Products with Encapsulated Minerals

Milk

Although milk is one of the most important nutritious foods in the world, it has a very low content of Fe (Kwak, Yang, & Ahn, 2003b). Thus, use of encapsulated-Fe in fortifying milk would be an advantageous means of

Dairy

Products

Mineral Type (Core) Wall Materials (WM)

Encapsulation Method

Special Mention of Determined Aspects

References

Milk

Core: NH4Fe(SO4)2, FeSO4 WM: Tween 80, Polyglycerol monostearate (PGMS)

Liposome

Fatty acid esters (FAE)

An unfavorable sensory score for metallic taste and smell was obtained. FAE method was an applicable method for microencapsulating different Fe-salts into pasteurized milk

Abbasi and Azari (2011)

Milk

Core: NH4Fe(SO4)2 WM: PGMS

Airless paint sprayer

A notable difference between capsulated and un-capsulated groups in sensory scores of astringency, metallic, color, and overall acceptability

Kwak et al. (2003b)

Milk

Core: FeSO4 ? 7H2O WM: egg phosphatidylcholine liposomes, Na—alginate and Modified starch (Ms)

Liposome

FAE

Freeze-drying

emulsificationEmulsification

Milk fortified with liposomes had an oily and unacceptable odor and taste (the lowest sensory scores) due to the inherent flavor of phosphatidylcholine

Gupta et al. (2015a)

Milk

Core: FeSO4

WM: Arabic gum (AG) +

Maltodextrin (MD) + MS

Modified solvent evaporation

Negative effects have been not reportedFe microcapsules fortified milk (63.78%) showed significantly higher in-vitro bioavailability of Fe as compared to control (unfortified, 19.86%) and Fe-salt-fortified milk (54.31%)

Gupta et al. (2015b)

Milk

Core: FeSO4 WM: Medium-chain triglyceride from palm oil + whey protein isolate

W/O/W double-emulsion

The 0.1% (w/v) Fe microcapsules can be used for the production of the Fe-microcapsule-fortified milk without the deterioration of sensory characteristics

Chang et al. (2016)

Powdered

milk

Core: FeSO4 WM: Not reported

Spray-drying

Fe-fortified powdered milk can be produced from fluid milk fortified with microencapsulated FeSO4 (SFE-171). The bioavailability of SFE-171 in the rat model was not changed by the manufacturing process

Lysionek et al. (2002)

Soymilk

Core: C6H10CaO6 WM: Lecithin

Liposome

Not reported any negative quality effect

Hirotsuka etal. (1984)

Soymilk

Core: Ca3(PO4)2 WM: Gelatin—agar

W/O/W double-emulsion

Encapsulation was an ideal Ca-fortification method in soymilk regarding higher stability of the product over pasteurization shelf life

Saeidy et al. (2014b)

Yogurt and Pasteurized milk

Core: C4H8FeN2O4; C6H10FeO6; FeSO4 WM: 50% vegetable fats

Spray-drying

The highest TBA and peroxide (PV) values were in ones fortified with FeSO4 microencapsulate

Gilliard

Nkhata

(2013)

Yogurt

Core: FeSO4

WM: Ca—alginate beads

Emulsification

Encapsulated whey protein chelated Fe with a high bioavailability can be added (up to 80 mg/L) without altering the accepted appearance and sensorial attributes

Subash et al. (2015)

Subash and Elango (2015)

Yogurt

Core: FeSO4

WM: Whey protein isolate gel

Gelation

Synthesis optimization of WPI-Fe particles to fortify yogurt. Releasing 95% of the particles in the intestinal condition (pH = 7.5)

Bagci and

Gunasekaran

(2016a)

Yogurt

Core: FeSO4

WM: Whey protein isolate gel

Gelation

High maintenance of the physicochemical and sensorial traits during storageThe similar quality of fortified yogurt (60 mg Fe/kg) with the control

Bagci and

Gunasekaran

(2016b)

Yogurt

Core: FeSO4, electrolytic-Fe WM: Na—alginate

Polymer complex

TBA and PV remained unchanged when yogurt was fortified with microencapsules containing Fe—whey protein complexThe yogurt fortified with un-encapsulated FeSO4 had metallic taste

Azzam

(2009)

Probiotic yogurt (L. acidophilus)

Core: FeSO4 WM: not reported

Polymer complex

Oxidized flavor of Fe was suppressed and TBA absorption was low in the sample fortified with microencapsulated Fe-whey protein complex

Jayalalitha etal. (2012)

(Continued)

TABLE 9.3 (Continued)

Dairy

Products

Mineral Type (Core) Wall Materials (WM)

Encapsulation Method

Special Mention of Determined Aspects

References

Drink

yogurt

Core: NH4Fe(SO4)2 WM: PGMS

Airless paint sprayer

TBA values remained unaffected in encapsulated Fe-fortified yogurt. However, sensory attributes (astringency/bitterness) of the fortified yogurt had significant difference compared with un-encapsulated one

Kim et al.

(2003)

Soy yogurt

Core: FeSO4 ? 7H2O +

Ca3(C6H5O7)2

WM: Partially hydrogenated lecithin

Spray-drying

Negative effects have been not reported

Cavallini and Rossi (2009)

Cheddar

cheese

Core: NH4Fe(SO4)2 WM: PGMS

Airless paint sprayer

Lower TBA in microencapsulated treatments during ripeningSensory aspects (bitterness/astringency/ sourness) were higher in Cheddar cheese fortified with microencapsulated Fe

Kwak et al. (2003a)

Feta cheese

Core: FeSO4

WM: ~50% vegetable fats

Spray-drying

Fortification of cheese with 80 mg/kg microencapsulated Fe and 150 mg/kg L-ascorbic acid is technically feasibleA small increase in lipid oxidation was found by measuring TBA valueNo off-flavor was detected by trained sensory panelistsAscorbic acid had a hopeful impact on decreasing negative effects of Fe

Jalili (2016)

attaining more Fe intake. For instance, a lecithin liposome system was applied to enrich milk with microencapsulated FeSO4 and the Fe bioavailability has been investigated. There was no significant decrease in Fe bioavailability of the fortified milk after the heat treatment and 6 month-storage. A similar Fe- bioavailability rate compared with its absorption from high-bioavailable FeSO4 was also reported (Boccio et al., 1997; Uicich et al., 1999).

In another study by Kwak et al. (2003b), a system microencapsulating Fe based on PGMS as a coating material was designed to fortify milk. Albeit just low quantities of Fe (3%—5%) was in vitro released in simulated gastric fluid (pH < 6.0), a considerable enhancement in Fe release rate was occurred during 1 h-incubation in simulated intestinal fluid by rising pH from 5.0 (12.3%) to 8.0 (95.7%). The sensory analysis at 3-day storage revealed that there were no significant differences in most sensory traits except for metallic taste and color between samples of control and fortified with microencapsulated-Fe. Moreover, TBA value in the sample fortified with unencapsulated Fe was higher than the encapsulated Fe (Kwak et al., 2003b). Abbasi and Azari (2011) also found the TBA value can be meaningfully increased in milk fortified with free Fe. No notable alteration in TBA of milk fortified with high loadings of microencapsulated-Fe was observed. Microencapsulation not only can decrease the rate of lipid oxidation by 60% but also can significantly mask the metallic taste of Fe in milk. However, sensory attributes (e.g., astringency or bitterness) of milk containing microencapsulated Fe were comparable to those of the control (Abbasi & Azari, 2011).

The fortifying feasibility of Fe microcapsules into milk and the effects on the physicochemical and sensory properties of the final products during storage time have been studied by Chang et al. (2016). Milk fortification with the Fe microcapsules at low levels (0.1—0.3% w/v) did not significantly vary TBA levels. The optimum content of Fe-microcapsule powder for the production of fortified milk was 0.1% (w/v), according to the obtained data from the pH, TBA, color, and sensory analysis during 16-day storage at 4°C (Chang et al., 2016). Lysionek et al. (2002) by investigating the Fe- bioavailability of microencapsulated FeSO4 in a diet based on powdered milk in rats found that the Fe-bioavailability values were significantly higher than that of the control diet.

Gupta et al. (2015a) prepared Fe microcapsules using four different techniques and then selected three microcapsules for fortifying milk on the basis of better EE (62.97%—74.85%). The organoleptic scores of Fe-fortified milk containing Na—alginate and modified starch microcapsules (10 mg/L Fe) were highly similar with the control milk. In another investigation by Gupta et al. (2015b), Fe microcapsules with average size of 15.54 mm were produced by mixing GA, MD, and modified starch using a modified solvent evaporation method. Panelists gave lower sensory scores to the Fe salt- fortified milk compared with fortified milk with Fe microcapsules during 5-day cold storage. Also, the fortified milk with Fe microcapsules had significantly higher in-vitro Fe-bioavailability as compared to the control and Fe salt fortified milk (Gupta et al., 2015b). Also, Gilliard Nkhata (2013) after fortifying pasteurized liquid milk with Fe microcapsules obtained from three Fe salts investigated their sensory properties. It was proved that there were no substantial differences in appearance and flavor in all treatments. Nevertheless, the control milk and fortified one with C6H10FeO6 showed no significant variations in taste. Overall, the best option to fortify pasteurized liquid milk was FeSO4 microcapsulate.

Ca content of soya milk (12 mg/100 g soya milk) is a lot lower than cow’s milk (120 mg/100 g). As a result, a lot of investigators have tried to overcome this nutritious defect through Ca-fortification of soymilk. Weingartner, Nelson, and Erdman (1983) by fortifying soy beverage with Ca salts (Ca3(PO4)2 and Ca3(C6H5O7)2) found that this process was ineffective because it led to an undesirable Ca—protein interaction as well as protein coagulation and precipitation. One year later, Hirotsuka et al. (1984) could fortify soymilk by entrapping C6H10CaO6 into a lecithin liposome structure. They fortified soya milk with Ca (110 mg Ca/100 g soya milk) to obtain an equivalent Ca level with usual cow’s milk. The fortified soymilk showed a high stability along with a high Ca-bioavailability for at least 1 week at 4° C (Hirotsuka et al., 1984). Saeidy et al. (2014b) using direct addition and microencapsulation technique fortified soymilk with Ca (Ca3(PO4)2; 2000 mg/L). They added potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7; <30 g/L) as a metalchelating agent to soymilk samples to inhibit Ca—protein interaction and improve soymilk stability. Nonetheless, mixture of Ca3(PO4)2 and C6H5K3O7 led to a less stability in soymilk. They concluded that addition of encapsulated Ca can be an ideal alternative for the addition of C6H5K3O7 in order to attain a more stable soymilk enriched with high amounts of Ca.

 
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