Encapsulated Minerals in Fortifying Other Foods
Kim et al. (2006) developed encapsulated-Ca in liposome (L-Ca) with EPC and injected it into rabbit before slaughter to evaluate its effect on the meat ageing. L-Ca injection into rabbit could effectively reduce the meat ageing time without causing any contamination and/or physical shock. Choi, Decker, and McClements (2009) prepared a W/O/W emulsion to encapsulate Fe in the inner aqueous layer to inhibit oxidation rate. An insignificant generation of TBA reactive substances (TBARS) and a high Fe-EE (99.75%) were observed after preparing a water-in-corn oil emulsion with Tween 60 emulsifier. An emulsion based on fish oil was subsequently developed and mixed with the first emulsion droplets in order to examine the Fe impact on the stability of fish oil. Findings showed a rise in TBA values by interacting Fe with fish oil and by activating oxidation mechanisms.
Porrarud and Pranee (2010) by spray-drying method encapsulated natural green colorants of Zn—chlorophyll derivatives extracted from pandan leaf with three different coating materials (GA, Ms, and MD). The SEM micrographs illustrated spherical and smooth particles for powders encapsulated with wall material of Ms, while powders produced by encapsulating agents of MD and GA showed the surface shrinkage (Fig. 9.14). According to the results obtained from physicochemical and stability studies by Porrarud and Pranee (2010), the maximum greenness, total chlorophyll, and antioxidant levels were for Zn—chlorophyll microcapsules made of 30% Ms. Based on the first-order kinetic model, the resulted powder exhibited an extended predicted half-life (462 days) compared with the formed powders with GA (330 days) and MD (385 days).
Ferreira et al. (2011) investigated suitability of black beans fortified with Fe microparticles. These scientists formulated three samples of stewed black beans namely control sample without any encapsulated FeSO4 (1), and bean samples with 5 (2) and 10 mg (3) encapsulated-Fe added to each portion spoon. Although there was a slight alteration between treatments (2) and (3), a better acceptability was found for the samples of control and treatment (1). Fantastic sufficiency of samples fortified by spray-dried FeSO4 microencap- sules could introduce them as an ideal candidate in order to prevent and/or control Fe-deficiency anemia.
Blanco-Rojo et al. (2011) assessed Fe status in menstruating women by consuming a Fe-fortified peach/apple juice. The core and wall components in producing spray-dried Fe microcapsules were Fe4O21P6 and lecithin, respectively. The intake of both agents of carbohydrate and ascorbic acid and also
FIGURE 9.14 SEM images of encapsulated powders of spray-dried Zn—chlorophylls extracted form pandan leaf (wall material: (A) GA, (B) MD, and (C) Ms). Reproduced from Porrarud and Pranee (2010).
body mass index within natural ranges were increased with the consumption of peach—apple juice enriched with Fe. The fortified samples could improve Fe situation and may be applied to prevent/control Fe-deficiency anemia.