• 1. Harry Frankfurt, The Reasons of Love (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004), 23. For another account of value with some similarities to Frankfurt’s, see Ronald Dworkin’s investment theory of value articulated in Life’s Dominion: An Argument about Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom (New York: Vintage Books, 1994).
  • 2. Ibid., 38-9.
  • 3. Ibid., 40.
  • 4. Immanuel Kant, Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, trans. Lewis White Beck (Library of Liberal Arts, 1959), 428.
  • 5. Kant can be construed as arguing that most things we value are indeed conditioned goods, dependent on their use as a means to our rational ends. However, my concern here is only with the objective, intrinsic value of humans, which Kant seems to clearly affirm due to our rational nature and our capacity for valuing other things.
  • 6. Kant, Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, 437.
  • 7. I do not wish to suggest that President Business’s arbitrary, tyrannical rule is the necessary consequence of the application of Harry Frankfurt’s views on value, which are much more subtle and humane than can be shown here. I am merely pointing out that President Business’s understanding of value seem to share some basic features with Frankfurt’s theory of value.


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