• 1. The experienced LEGO builder will be quick to point out that there are, in fact, other ways to customize the LEGO minifigure. As long as one is careful, it is possible to remove and replace the individual hands, arms, and legs from the torso and leg assemblies, respectively. Although this is a common practice among the community of LEGO builders, I have chosen to focus on the main minifigure components simply because they are more accessible to the universal LEGO audience. This level of customization requires a bit of experience and care, and many builders (particularly younger ones) may not yet be familiar with this practice.
  • 2. Brian McLaughlin and Karen Bennett, “Supervenience,” in Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2014 edition), available at supervenience/ (accessed February 28, 2017).
  • 3. For a much more thorough discussion of supervenience in philosophy, see Stephan Leuenberger, “LEGO® and the Building Blocks of Metaphysics” in this book, 197-206.
  • 4. For a thorough summary of this entire debate, as well as many of the seminal texts that have helped to shape it, see John Perry, ed., Personal Identity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008).
  • 5. For the very first mention of this particular thought-experiment, see Plutarch, “Life of Theseus,” in The Rise and Fall of Athens: Nine Greek Lives, trans. Ian-Scott Kilvert (London: Penguin Books, 1960), 13-42.
  • 6. See Derek Parfit, “Personal Identity,” in John Perry, ed., Personal Identity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008), 199-223.
  • 7. Kevin Schmiesing, “A History of Personalism,” unpublished paper for the Acton Institute for the Study of Religion and Liberty, available at (accessed February 28, 2017).
  • 8. Max Scheler, Formalism in Ethics and Non-Formal Ethics of Values: A New Attempt toward the Foundation of an Ethical Personalism, trans. Manfred S. Frings and Roger L. Funk (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1973), 382-3, quoted in Peter H. Spader, Scheler’s Ethical Personalism: Its Logic, Development, and Promise (New York: Fordham University Press, 2002), 104.
  • 9. D. Anthony Storm, “A Primer on Kierkegaardian Motifs,” in D. Anthony Storm’s Commentary on Kierkegaard, available at http://www (accessed February 28, 2017).
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