Implications for Construct’s Structure and Content
In reference to the first research question and due to the results so far, one can conclude that eWOM trust is best described as a secondorder construct with five separate firstorder subdimensions: (1) ability (usefulness), (2) integrity/honesty, (3) benevolence, (4) willingness to rely (use), and (5) willingess to depend (risk). These factors capture cognitive, emotional, as well as conative trust aspects. In line with empirical results, this thesis formally defines eWOM trust as a consumer’s general confidence that the information conveyed in online customer reviews is reliable. More specifically, eWOM trust is formally defined as a fivedimensional, secondorder construct capturing the extent to which a consumer has the belief that information given in online customer reviews is (a) useful, (b) honest, and (c) benevolent; (d) is willing to rely on (use) online customer reviews in general; and (e) is willing to depend on this kind of market information. According to exploratory as well as confirmatory factor analyses, the eWOM trust scale (eWTS) with its 22 observable indicators adequately measures a consumer’s general tendency to trust claims of fellow shoppers made in online reviews. Each of the five subdimensions is measured with an appropriate number of items fulfilling the statistical and theoretical requirements of measurement theory (e.g., Albers & Hildebrandt, 2006).
252
Chi Square Difference 
Model Fit Indices 

Model 
Chi Square 
if 
P 
Competing Models 
Chi Square Difference 
if Difference 
Sign. 
Chi Square / if 
RMSEA 
NFI 
NNFI 
CFI 
RMR 
SRMR 
GFI 
A GFI 
Null Model (N) 
9,218.44 
231 
39.91 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 

One Factor Model (1) 
2,461.36 
209 
.001 
11.78 
.19 
.73 
.72 
.75 
.16 
.10 
.58 
.50 

(Nl) 
6,757.08 
22 
***  
Three Factor Model (3) (A/I/W2; B; Wl) 
1,246.37 
206 
.001 
(N3) 
7,972.08 
25 
6.05 
.12 
.87 
.87 
.88 
.11 
.07 
.76 
.71 

(13) 
1,215.00 
3 
***  
Four Factor Model (4a) (A/I; B; Wl; W2) 
1,105.33 
205 
.001 
(N4a) 
8,113.11 
26 
5.39 
.12 
.88 
.89 
.90 
.11 
.07 
.77 
.72 

(l4a) 
1,356.03 
4 
*** 

(34a) 
141.04 
1 
***  
Four Factor Model (4b) (A/W2; I; B; Wl) 
822.28 
205 
.001 
(N4b) 
8,396.17 
26 
... 
4.01 
.08 
.91 
.92 
.93 
.12 
.07 
.86 
.83 
(l4b) 
1,639.09 
4 
*** 

(34b) 
424.09 
1 
***  
Four Factor Model (4c) (I/W2; A; B; Wl) 
843.11 
205 
.001 
(N4c) 
8,375.33 
26 
4.11 
.08 
.91 
.92 
.93 
.12 
.07 
.86 
.83 

(l4c) 
1,618.25 
4 
*** 

(34c) 
403.26 
1 
*** 
Table 34: Competing Models (Modified Scale, Sample 4)
253
Model Chi Square df 
P 
Chi Square Difference 
Model Fit Indices 

Competing _{n} df ,, , , ° Square „. Models „.2. Difference Difference 
Sign. 
Chi Square/ RMSEA NFI NNFI CFI RMR SRMR GFI AGFI df 

Four Factor Model (4d) 1,728.46 205 (IAVI; I; B; W2) 
.001 
8.43 .15 .81 .81 .83 .14 .09 .68 .61 

(N4d) 7,489.98 26 
*** 

(l~4d) 732.90 4 
*** 

(3~4d) 482.10 1 
n.s. 

Four Factor Model (4e) 1,034.97 205 (I; A;B; W1/W2) 
.001 
5.05 .10 .89 .90 .91 .16 .09 .81 .77 

(NAe) 8,183.48 26 
*** 

(lAe) 1,426.40 4 
*** 

(3Ae) 211.40 1 
*** 

Five Factor Model (5) 627.59 204 
.001 
3.08 .06 .93 .95 .95 .10 .06 .90 .88 

(N5) 8,590.85 27 
*** 

(15) 1,833.77 5 
*** 

(35) 618.77 2 
*** 

(4a5) 477.74 1 
*** 

(4b5) 194.68 1 
*** 

(4c5) 215.52 1 
*** 

(4d5) 1,100.87 1 
*** 

(4e5) 407.37 1 
*** 
Table 34 (Cont.): Competing Models (Modified Scale, Sample 4)
Notes: A = Ability; I = Integrity/Honesty; В = Benevolence; WR = Willingness to rely; WD = Willingness to depend; *** = p <.001; n.s. = not significant; n.a. = not available.
254
Chi Square Difference 
Model Fit Indices 

Subdimension Pairing 
Model 
Chi Square 
if 
P 
Competing Models 
Chi Square Difference 
if Difference 
Sign. 
Chi Square / if 
RMSEA 
NNFI 
CFI 
RMR 
SRMR 
AG FI 
Integrity / Ability 
Null Model (N) 
5,199.0 6 
66 
78.77 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 

One Factor Model (1) 
616.03 
54 
.001 
(Nl) 
4,583.03 
12 
*** 
11.41 
.18 
.87 
.89 
.08 
.06 
.67 

Two Factor Model (2) 
158.64 
53 
.001 
(N2) 
5,040.42 
13 
*** 
2.99 
.06 
.97 
.98 
.04 
.03 
.93 

(12) 
457.39 
1 
***  
Integrity / 
Null Model (N) 
3,606.23 
45 
80.14 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 

Benevolence 
One Factor Model (1) 
369.50 
35 
.001 
(Nl) 
3,236.73 
10 
*** 
10.56 
.14 
.88 
.91 
.14 
.08 
.79 
Two Factor Model (2) 
94.51 
34 
.001 
(N2) 
3,511.72 
11 
*** 
2.78 
.06 
.98 
.98 
.05 
.03 
.94 

(12) 
275.00 
1 
***  
Integrity / Willingness to rely 
Null Model (N) 
4,552.47 
55 
82.77 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 

One Factor Model (1) 
1,189.06 
44 
.001 
(Nl) 
3,363.41 
11 
*** 
27.02 
.26 
.68 
.75 
.02 
.14 
.47 

Two Factor Model (2) 
91.35 
43 
.001 
(N2) 
4,461.12 
12 
*** 
2.12 
.05 
.99 
.99 
.03 
.02 
.95 

(12) 
1,097.71 
1 
***  
Integrity / Willingness to depend 
Null Model (N) 
3,835.03 
45 
85.22 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 

One Factor Model (1) 
292.07 
35 
.001 
(Nl) 
3,542.96 
10 
*** 
8.34 
.13 
.91 
.93 
.11 
.05 
.83 

Two Factor Model (2) 
87.60 
34 
.001 
(N2) 
3,747.43 
11 
*** 
2.58 
.06 
.98 
.99 
.04 
.02 
.95 

(12) 
204.47 
1 
***  
Ability / Benevolence 
Null Model (N) 
2,541.11 
28 
90.75 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 

One Factor Model (1) 
460.46 
20 
.001 
(Nl) 
2,080.65 
8 
*** 
23.02 
.21 
.76 
.83 
.23 
.12 
.66 

Two Factor Model (2) 
97.97 
19 
.001 
(N2) 
2,443.15 
9 
*** 
5.16 
.09 
.95 
.97 
.08 
.06 
.91 

d2) 
362.49 
1 
***  
Ability / Willingness to rely 
Null Model (N) 
3,794.88 
36 
105.41 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 

One Factor Model (1) 
622.38 
27 
.001 
(Nl) 
3,172.50 
9 
*** 
23.05 
.26 
.79 
.84 
.11 
.08 
.52 

Two Factor Model (2) 
101.37 
26 
.001 
(N2) 
3,693.52 
10 
*** 
3.90 
.08 
.97 
.98 
.03 
.02 
.93 

(12) 
521.01 
1 
*** 
Table 35: Pairings of Subdimensions (Modified Scale, Sample 4)
Chi Square Difference 
Model Fit Indices 

Subdimension Pairing 
Model 
Chi Square 
4f 
P 
Competing Models 
Chi Square Difference 
4f Difference 
Sign. 
Chi Square/ 4f 
RMSEA 
NFI 
NNFI 
CFI 
RMR 
SRMR 
GFI 
AG FI 
Ability / Willingness to depend 
Null Model (N) 
2,798.42 
28 
99.94 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 

One Factor Model (1) 
274.29 
20 
.001 
(Nl) 
2,524.13 
8 
*** 
13.71 
.17 
.90 
.87 
.91 
.14 
.07 
.87 
.77 

Two Factor Model (2) 
53.89 
19 
.001 
(N2, 
2,744.53 
9 
*** 
2.84 
.06 
.98 
.98 
.99 
.03 
.02 
.97 
.95 

d2, 
220.40 
1 
***  
Benevolence / Willingness to rely 
Null Model (N) 
2,142.71 
21 
102.03 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 

One Factor Model (1) 
549.49 
14 
.001 
(Nl, 
1,593.22 
7 
*** 
39.25 
.27 
.74 
.62 
.75 
.34 
.18 
.76 
.53 

Two Factor Model (2) 
62.08 
13 
.001 
(N2, 
2,080.63 
8 
*** 
4.78 
.09 
.97 
.96 
.98 
.08 
.05 
.97 
.93 

d2, 
487.41 
1 
***  
Benevolence / Willingness to depend 
Null Model (N) 
1,295.71 
15 
86.38 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 

One Factor Model (1) 
350.70 
9 
.001 
(Nl, 
945.00 
6 
*** 
38.97 
.30 
.73 
.56 
.73 
.24 
.13 
.79 
.50 

Two Factor Model (2) 
27.07 
8 
.001 
(N2, 
1,268.64 
7 
*** 
3.38 
.07 
.98 
.97 
.99 
.07 
.03 
.98 
.95 

d2, 
323.64 
1 
***  
Willingness to rely / Willingness to depend 
Null Model (N) 
2,415.06 
21 
115.00 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 
n.a. 

One Factor Model (1) 
347.93 
14 
.001 
(Nl) 
2,067.13 
7 
*** 
24.85 
.23 
.86 
.79 
.86 
.21 
.10 
.82 
.65 

Two Factor Model (2) 
37.52 
13 
.001 



*** 
2.89 
.06 
.98 
.98 
.99 
.03 
.02 
.98 
.96 
Table 35 (Cont.): Pairings of Subdimensions (Modified Scale, Sample 4)
Notes: *** = p <.001; n.a. = not available.
255