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Building Acoustics

AcousticsDEFINITION OF ACOUSTICSBRIEF HISTORYNOTIONS OF LEVELSCharacterizing SoundSound LevelWeightingsAdditionEq uivalent Sound Levels and Statistical Sound LevelsExamplesHighest Sound Level in Air under Normal CircumstancesAdditionEquivalent Sound LevelNOTIONS OF PROPAGATIONPropagation in Free FieldPropagation with Surfaces along the WayPropagation over TerrainPropagation in RoomsNo ise BarriersNoise Barriers OutdoorsNoise Barriers indoorsExamplesThe Longest Propagation?A Long PropagationPropagation in a TubePropagation along a Curved SurfaceBASICS OF SOUND INSULATION AND ATTENUATIONSound AttenuationSound AttenuationExamplesVegetation OutdoorsAbsorptive Treatment in a RoomExperiencing Sound InsulationSound Reduction IndexDefinitionPredictive ComputationExamplesSound Reduction Index of a Few PartitionsSound Reduction Index of Concrete and Mineral Wool by a Simple ModelSound InsulationDefinitionComputationWhich Insulation for Which Use?ExamplesWaiting RoomImprovement of the Facade of Dwellings and MoreEnvelope Made of an Absorptive MaterialDesigning, Building, and CommissioningBASICS OF REVERBERATION TIMEAbsorptionExperiencing Reverberation (or Its Lack)DefinitionAbsorptive MaterialsReverberationExperiencing Reverberation (or its Lack)Reverberation and EchoesDefinition of RTSimple Computation of RTWhich RT for Which Use?Spatial Sound Level DecayExamplesI RT and MusicBad Reverberation and SpeechPropagation between a Confessional and a CryptAbsorptive Turned ReflectiveResonances of VolumesNOTIONS OF INTELLIGIBILITYDefinitionFactorsAssessing IntelligibilityWhich Intelligibility for Which Use?NOTIONS OF ANNOYANCE AND DISTURBANCEN oise AnnoyanceN oise DisturbanceStatutory Noise NuisanceNoise Annoyance and Noise-Induced DisturbancesEmergence, Exceedance, IntrusivenessExamplesI Low-Frequency Noise in a DwellingBarking Noise and Other Animal NoiseSpeech Noise OutsideNoise Reduction at the Source (Never to be Imitated)STANDARDIZATION IN ACOUSTICSPurposeProcessA Few Points to Beware OfExamplesI HVAC Individual UnitHVAC Large Building UnitCeilingDoorS RoofPlasterboard PartitionBASICS OF REGULATIONSPurposeProcessA Few DifficultiesUsing the Standards in the RegulationsExpert to the CourtExamplesNoise from Mechanical Equipment in a BuildingNoise from a CinemaNoise from a CockWhat Is Activity Noise?Rehabilitation of a DwellingLABORATORY AND IN SITU MEASUREMENTSPurposeMastering the Measurement ConditionsMaking Do with Existing ConditionsStandards for MeasurementsSound Reduction of a Wall or FloorImpact Sound Level of a FloorAbsorption CoefficientSound Power LevelMeasurement and ComputationExamplesVariability with TimeTraffic NoiseReverberation Time MeasurementsDoor PanelRoof AssemblyCeilingACTIVE NOISE CONTROLActive Noise ControlExamplesHeadphonesSilencers on Air IntakeAirplanesREFERENCESBuilding AcousticsFOREWORDINTRODUCTIONSOUND INSULATIONExperiencing Sound InsulationSound Reduction IndexSound Reduction Improvement IndexSound InsulationSingle Number RatingComputing the Sound Reduction Index and the Sound InsulationI Sound Reduction IndexSound InsulationN oise Radiated by a ConstructionStandards and RegulationsIMPACT NOISEExperiencing Impact Noise and Walking NoiseImpact Noise of a FloorImpact Noise TransmissionRain Impact NoiseWalking Noise of a Floor AssemblySingle Number RatingImpact Sound ReductionWalking Noise of a Floor CoveringComputationImpact Noise on a WallStandards and RegulationsACOUSTIC ABSORPTION AND REVERBERATION TIMEExperiencing ReverberationAcoustic AbsorptionReverberation TimeSpatial Sound Level DecayReflecting, Focusing, and ScatteringStandards and RegulationsVIBRATION CONTROLForewordSources of VibrationsA Few Standards and RegulationsVibration ControlReduction at the SourceReduction along the PathReduction at the Receiver EndNoise Generated by VibrationsCONSTRUCTION NOISEA FEW STAGES OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONREFURBISHMENTNOTIONS OF SOUND MASKINGForewordSound MaskingA WORD ABOUT PRIVACY AND SECURITYForewordPrivacy and SecurityEXAMPLESIs Such a Heavy Concrete Wall Insulating?A Small Dance FloorImpact Noise ReductionA FanMisusing a Computer ModelA WindowA Glued PlasterboardA Glued Calibel (Plaster on Mineral Wool)Long Reverberation Time in an Anechoic Room?Ruined AbsorptionAn Improvement Turned SourA BridgeStructure-Borne Rail NoiseShop Offices and DwellingsWhere Is One Supposed to Measure?Is There an Insulation Problem?Listening to Conversations through a FloorHAVING A GO AT DIMENSIONING THE PROJECTGeneralSound InsulationImpact Sound InsulationReverberation ControlMechanical Noise ControlFire and SafetyREFERENCESMechanical EquipmentINTRODUCTIONAPPLICABLE STANDARDS AND REGULATIONSHVACBoilersAHU and FansCompressorsHeat ExchangersFreezersPumpsPiping and DuctingSilencersELECTRICALTransformersGeneratorsTerminalsWiringBatteries and Static ConvertorsLIFTSVarious Types of MachineryShaftA Few PracticalitiesSANITARY EQUIPMENTTapsPumpsPipingVIBRATION CONTROLA FEW PRACTICAL ASPECTSEXAMPLESCoal BoilerG as BoilerSilencerDuctingAHU N oiseHVAC N oiseFansTerminals in a WallStatic Convertor in a CinemaTransformers Generating Noise UpstairsLiftREFERENCESUser’s EquipmentFOREWORDAPPLICABLE STANDARDS AND REGULATIONSOccupational RegulationsCommunity Noise Control RegulationsContractual RequirementsA FEW USUAL TYPES OF USER’S EQUIPMENTStage EquipmentProduction EquipmentComputer and Video EquipmentPersonal HVAC UnitsElectric GeneratorsSound SystemsMiscellaneous Outdoor Noise SourcesSelecting the EquipmentA FEW PRACTICAL ASPECTSEXAMPLESCeiling FanHVAC Unit in a CourtyardOutdoor Heat PumpRectifierGeneratorLubricationPianoSound SystemGrinding StoneSpin DryerArtificial ValvulaLaboratory CabinHome CinemaREFERENCESRoom AcousticsINTRODUCTIONBASIC PARAMETERSForewordAcoustic AbsorptionReverberation TimeReverberationEchoesImpulse ResponseA Few PracticalitiesSpatial Sound Level DecayA FEW TYPES OF ROOMSPerformance HallIndustrial HallOp en-Plan OfficeMeeting RoomsClassroomsWHAT PARAMETER FOR WHICH USE?ForewordSpaciousness and EnvelopmentClarity and FullnessLoudnessStrengthSPEECH INTELLIGIBILITYForewordSTI and DerivativesSIIALcElectroacousticsArticulation Index and Privacy IndexDIFFUSION AND SCATTERINGMODELINGForewordStatistical ModelingRay Tracing ModelingScale ModelingAs a Short SummaryA FEW PRACTICALITIESRENOVATIONEXAMPLESIntelligibility Test Gone WrongClassroom MistreatedMeasuring the Spatial Sound Level DecayAn Art Deco Theatre and OperaA Concert Hall with an EchoA Simple Flutter Echo OccurrenceTh e Olympia in ParisThe Theatre of Douai, FranceUsing ElectroacousticsA Curved Back WallREFERENCESOffices, Open Spaces, and RestaurantsINTRODUCTIONREQUIREMENTSApplicable StandardsA Few Points to Be ConsideredOfficesRestaurantsACOUSTIC TARGETSSound Attenuation and Sound InsulationN oise Levels from ActivitiesA FEW BASIC RULESMODELINGMEASURINGEXAMPLESDirector’s Office in an Open Space (Failed)Director’s Office in an Open Space (Passed)Sustainable Development Office TowerCrisis RoomBank Management FloorDispatch CenterStandard OfficesOpen-Plan OfficeActivitiesREFERENCESDwellings Hotels and HospitalsINTRODUCTIONREQUIREMENTSRegulationsBuilding PerformanceOccupant’s BehaviorStandardsBuilding PerformanceOccupant’s BehaviorContractual RequirementsBuilding PerformanceOccupant’s BehaviorRehabilitationACOUSTIC TARGETSN ew Dwelling ConstructionHotelsH ospitalsRehabilitationA FEW BASIC RULESEXAMPLESDwellingsRehabilitation Turned SourNoisy BehaviorHome CinemaM usic RoomHotelH ospitalMedical H ouseDwellings with a Supermarket DownstairsDwellings with a Musical Venue DownstairsDwelling with a Swimming PoolHotel with a Large BallroomREFERENCESOther Spaces Used by the PublicINTRODUCTIONANALYSIS OF REQUIREMENTSForewordApplicable Standards and RegulationsA Few Points Worth ConsideringACOUSTIC TARGETSA FEW BASIC RULESA FEW TYPES OF PUBLIC SPACESEntrance HallsShops and Shopping AreasExhibition HallsM useums and GalleriesAirport and Station LoungesLibrariesBars and LoungesRestaurantsCourt of JusticeSport HallEXAMPLESA Small BarA Larger BarA RestaurantA M useumAn Exhibition HallAn Entrance HallAn Airport HallA LibraryA N ew Court of JusticeAn Old Court of JusticeREFERENCESProduction Facilities and WorkshopsINTRODUCTIONREQUIREMENTSACOUSTIC TARGETSA FEW BASIC RULESMODELINGSabine ModelingRay Tracing ModelingMEASUREMENTSEXAMPLESN oise ReductionIt Would Have Been So SimplePhantom at WorkShort-Duration NoiseShort-Duration Task and Easy Noise ControlBeware of the Too ObviousEnclosure for a MachineSuch a Simple EnclosureCabin for PersonnelWorkshop for Light TasksAssessing the Spatial Sound Level DecayAssessing the N oise Exposure Level of WorkersREFERENCESEducational Facilities’ Performance and Lecture HallsINTRODUCTIONREQUIREMENTSForewordClassroomsMeeting Rooms and OfficesLecture HallsPerformance HallsRestaurantsACOUSTIC TARGETSA FEW BASIC RULESTYPICAL SPACESKindergarten SchoolPrimary SchoolCollegeUniversity TheatreRestaurantSleeping QuartersGymnasiumWorkshopsEXAMPLESNurseryKindergarten SchoolPrimary SchoolCollegeUniversityREFERENCESTheatres and CinemasINTRODUCTIONREQUIREMENTSACOUSTIC TARGETSCinemasTheatresA FEW BASIC RULESCinemasProjection BoothProjection TheatrePublic SpacesTechnical AreasService DwellingSurround and OmnimaxTheatresProjection, Sound, and Lighting BoothsTheatrePublic Spaces and Backstage SpacesTechnical AreasService DwellingEXAMPLESA Noisy Service DwellingA Small Township CinemaA Large Cinema FacilityAn Enlargement of a Large CinemaA Small Township TheatreA Medium-Sized TheatreA Large TheatreREFERENCESMusic and Concert FacilitiesINTRODUCTIONREQUIREMENTSForewordConcert FacilityExercise and Rehearsal RoomsACOUSTIC TARGETSForewordSound InsulationReverberationMechanical NoiseA FEW BASIC RULESGeneral RulesAmplified Music FacilitiesClassical Music FacilitiesMODELINGRay Tracing ModelingScale ModelingEXAMPLESIRCAMMC2Zenith of DijonAuditorium Maurice Ravel in LyonToneHalle in DusseldorfRoyal Albert Hall in LondonA Small M usic RoomThe Best Concert Hall Ever?A Misplaced Lighting FixtureLa Halle aux Grains in ToulouseREFERENCESOperasINTRODUCTIONREQUIREMENTSForewordOpera HallOther RoomsACOUSTIC TARGETSA FEW BASIC RULESMODELINGForewordRay Tracing ModelingScale ModelingEXAMPLESThe Theatre of MirecourtTh e Opera of LyonThe Opera of La BastilleThe Opera of VichyThe Theatre-Opera Capitole of ToulouseREFERENCESMultipurpose FacilitiesINTRODUCTIONREQUIREMENTSACOUSTIC TARGETSA FEW BASIC RULESA FEW TYPESForewordLight Multipurpose HallHeavy Multipurpose HallVariable Acoustics through Mechanical MeansVariable Acoustics through Electroacoustic Enhancement SystemsSports HallExhibition HallStudiosOutdoor ExtensionsREHABILITATIONEXAMPLESVendespacePalio and Arena LoireParis ExpoParis La Villette Salle Louis ArmandLe Vinci in ToursSalle 3000 Amphitheatre in LyonSalle Louis Frechette in QuebecElgin Theatre in TorontoPalais Omnisports de Paris BercyPalais des Congres de VichyREFERENCESExample of a Building ProjectDESCRIPTIONACOUSTIC OBJECTIVESSound Insulation to the ExteriorSound Insulation between SpacesSound AbsorptionMechanical EquipmentU ser’s RequirementsMiscellaneousConstructionSummaryACOUSTIC SPECIFICATIONSSound Insulation to the ExteriorDwellingsOfficesShopsBar-RestaurantWorkshopSound Insulation between SpacesDwellingsOfficesShopsBar-RestaurantWorkshopSound AbsorptionDwellingsOfficesShopsBar-RestaurantWorkshopMechanical EquipmentDwellingsOfficesShopsBar-RestaurantWorkshopUser’s RequirementsDwellingsOfficesShopsBar-RestaurantWorkshopCONCLUSIONREFERENCESExamples of Fitting OutDESCRIPTIONBEDROOMDescription of the OperationDiagnosis and FeasibilityPrescriptionsSound InsulationSound AbsorptionMechanical EquipmentUser’s EquipmentA Few CommentsMEETING ROOMDescription of the OperationDiagnosis and FeasibilityPrescriptionsSound InsulationSound AbsorptionMechanical EquipmentUser’s EquipmentA Few CommentsREFERENCESA Word about Other Interesting Topics (Thermal and Fire Protection of Buildings, Structures, and Rodent Repulsion)INTRODUCTIONSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERINGTHERMAL INSULATION ScopeThermal InsulationVentilationSunscreensDiagnosisFIRE PROTECTIONDesignFire DetectionFire AlarmFire ProtectionUser’s BehaviorFi re FightingANIMAL REPULSIONRodent RepulsionBird FrighteningEXAMPLESVibration Control in a Seismic EnvironmentA Thermal BridgeSustainable Development ProjectOutdoor SunscreenDilatationAshtray Emptied in the Wastepaper BasketIncorrect Disposal of Hazardous MaterialsInsufficient InformationNegligent BehaviorElectrical ProblemFire Detection TamperingAudibility of an AlarmObstructed ExitAn Office Building without “False” ComponentsA Performance HallRodent RepulsionBird FrighteningCONCLUSIONREFERENCES
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