Integrating Human Factors Methods and Systems Thinking for Transport Analysis and Design

PrefaceWHO SHOULD READ THIS BOOK?WHY SHOULD YOU READ THIS BOOK?HOW TO READ THIS BOOKSystems Thinking in Transport Analysis and DesignINTRODUCTIONSystems Thinking and Rail Level CrossingsUNDERSTANDING THE SYSTEMS THINKING APPROACHRasmussen's FrameworkSociotechnical Systems TheoryHOW DOES STS AND THE SYSTEMS THINKING APPROACH APPLY TO RAIL LEVEL CROSSING COLLISIONS?The Rail Level Crossing SystemRasmussen's Accident Causation TenetsSYSTEMS THINKING APPLIED: THE CRASH AT KERANGThe Individual PerspectiveA Systems Perspective on KerangSUMMARYAn Overview of Key Human Factors Approaches and MethodsINTRODUCTIONDATA COLLECTION METHODS FOR UNDERSTANDING HUMAN PERFORMANCEObservationVehicle MeasuresEye TrackingVerbal Protocol AnalysisCognitive Task Analysis InterviewsWorkloadUsability and Subjective Preference MeasuresDATA COLLECTION METHODS FOR UNDERSTANDING SYSTEM PERFORMANCEDocument Review and AnalysisInput from Subject-Matter ExpertsSYSTEMS-FOCUSSED ANALYSIS METHODSNetwork AnalysisHierarchical Task AnalysisSystematic Human Error Reduction and Prediction ApproachCognitive Work AnalysisHUMAN FACTORS DESIGN METHODSScenarios and StoriesPersonasInspiration CardsAssumption CrushingMetaphors and AnalogiesSUMMARYAn Integrated Framework for Transport Analysis and DesignINTRODUCTIONA RESEARCH PROGRAMME UNDERPINNED BY SOCIOTECHNICAL SYSTEMS THEORYTHE RESEARCH FRAMEWORKPhase 1 - Data CollectionPhase 2 - Existing Systems AnalysisPhase 3 - Development of Novel DesignsPhase 4 - Evaluation of DesignsSUMMARYSection II Rail Level Crossing Data Collection and Analysis Understanding the Factors Influencing User BehaviourINTRODUCTIONON-ROAD STUDIESParticipantsInstrumented VehicleTest RoutesData Collection ProcedureData SourcesKey FindingsUrban Rail Level CrossingsRural Rail Level CrossingsCOGNITIVE TASK ANALYSIS INTERVIEWSInterview ProcedureData AnalysisKey FindingsNovice versus Experienced DriversUrban versus Rural EnvironmentsDIARY STUDYParticipantsSurvey Format and ContentKey FindingsPredictors of Non-Compliant BehaviourDifferences between Road UsersINPUT FROM SUBJECT-MATTER EXPERTSKey FindingsMonitoring InfrastructureMonitoring Road UsersRoute KnowledgeSUMMARYA Systems Analysis of Rail Level CrossingsINTRODUCTIONCWA OF RAIL LEVEL CROSSING SYSTEMSAnalysis ApproachWork Domain AnalysisControl Task AnalysisContextual Activity TemplateDecision LaddersStrategies AnalysisSocial Organisation and Cooperation AnalysisSummary of Findings from CWAHTA OF RAIL LEVEL CROSSING SYSTEMSAnalysis ApproachHTA of Rail Level CrossingsSHERPA OF RAIL LEVEL CROSSING SYSTEMSAnalysis ApproachSHERPA Analysis of Rail Level CrossingsSUMMARYSection III Design of New Rail Level Crossing EnvironmentsA Participatory Approach to Designing Rail Level CrossingsINTRODUCTIONPHILOSOPHY UNDERPINNING THE CWA-DTContrasting Sociotechnical Systems Theory and Traditional Safety Management ApproachesAPPLICATION OF THE CWA-DT TO RAIL LEVEL CROSSING DESIGNDocumentation of Insights from the CWA OutputsPrompting for InsightsInsight PrioritisationDesign Process PlanningDesign Tool SelectionIdea Generation WorkshopSociotechnical Values CardsPersonasThe Impossible Challenge ExerciseScenariosAssumption CrushingMetaphorical DesignInspiration CardsImpossible Challenge RevisitedDesign Concept DefinitionDesign Concept PrioritisationSUMMARYInitial Design Concept EvaluationINTRODUCTIONDESIGN EVALUATION WITH CWAEvaluation of Speed, Expectancy, Gap Concept with WDADESIGN EVALUATION WITH HTA AND SHERPAEvaluation of Speed, Expectancy, Gap Concept with hta andDESIGN EVALUATION AGAINST SOCIOTECHNICAL SYSTEMS THEORY PRINCIPLESKEY RISKS ADDRESSEDSUMMARISING THE EVALUATION RESULTS FOR EACH DESIGN CONCEPTCOMPARING DESIGNSSUMMARYDesign Concept RefinementINTRODUCTIONSTAKEHOLDER DESIGN REFINEMENT WORKSHOPDesign Improvement ReviewEvaluation and Ranking of ConceptsDESIGN PROCESS EVALUATIONParticipant Reflections on the Participatory Design ProcessResearcher Reflections on the Participatory Design ProcessRESEARCHER DESIGN REFINEMENT ACTIVITIESIn-Vehicle Interface Design Using EID PrinciplesGeneration of Additional Design ConceptsFINAL DESIGN CONCEPTS FOR URBAN ENVIRONMENTSComprehensive Risk Control CrossingIntelligent Level CrossingCommunity Courtyard CrossingFINAL DESIGN CONCEPTS FOR RURAL ENVIRONMENTSSimple But StrongEID CrossingGPS Average SpeedSUMMARYSection IV Evaluation of Design ConceptsSimulation-Based Evaluation of Design ConceptsINTRODUCTIONGENERAL EXPERIMENTAL METHODDriving SimulatorMeasuresSTUDY 1: URBAN DESIGN CONCEPT EVALUATIONParticipantsStudy DesignKey Findings: Comprehensive Risk Control CrossingKey Findings: Intelligent Level CrossingKey Findings: Community Courtyard CrossingSummary of the Urban Design Evaluation FindingsSTUDY 2: RURAL DESIGN CONCEPT EVALUATIONParticipantsStudy DesignKey Findings: Simple But StrongKey Findings: Ecological Interface Design CrossingKey Findings: GPS Average SpeedSummary of the Rural Design Evaluation FindingsSTUDY 3: SCENARIO-BASED EVALUATIONParticipantsStudy DesignDistraction ScenarioSystem Failure ScenarioKey FindingsSUMMARYSurvey-Based Evaluation of Design ConceptsINTRODUCTIONSURVEY METHODDATA ANALYSISURBAN DESIGN EVALUATIONSUrban Car DriversUrban Heavy Vehicle DriversUrban MotorcyclistsUrban CyclistsUrban PedestriansSummary of Responses to Urban DesignsRURAL DESIGN EVALUATIONS Rural Car DriversRural Heavy Vehicle DriversRural MotorcyclistsRural CyclistsSummary of Responses to Rural DesignsSUMMARYSummary and ConclusionsINTRODUCTIONA WHOLE OF LIFE CYCLE HUMAN FACTORS APPROACHRECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING RAIL LEVEL CROSSING SAFETYREFLECTIONS ON THE RESEARCH PROGRAMMEFactors Influencing User BehaviourJoint Optimisation of Rail Level Crossing SystemsShifting ParadigmsReflections on Sociotechnical Systems Theory-Based DesignFURTHER RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES TO IMPROVE RAIL LEVEL CROSSING SAFETYField TrialsSystem Simulation and ModellingCost-Benefit AnalysisSUMMARYe Applications and OpportunitiesINTRODUCTIONFURTHER APPLICATIONS IN TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMSImproving Intersection DesignResponding to the Challenge of Highly Automated VehiclesAdditional Rail Safety ApplicationsMaritimeAviationAPPLICATIONS BEYOND TRANSPORTPreventing Incidents in Outdoor EducationEnhancing Approaches to CybersecurityOptimising Sports SystemsSUMMARY
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